Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition & Malnutrition - Feeding practices including micronutrient deficiencies prevention, control of wasting, stunting and underweight
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Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Malnutrition


Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition and Malnutrition

Mother, Infant and Young Child
Nutrition and Malnutrition

HealthPhone: Nutrition, Health, Medical Training Videos


Vikaspedia: Reaching the ‘un-reached’ communities of India

Creative Commons Licence

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Resources

Click > Nutrition & Malnutrition Resources specifically for India

Knowledge is built incrementally with one person building upon the work of another. The more we make this process easy the faster knowledge will reach and thus benefit all of human kind.

In order to provide more comprehensive and meaningful search results on our site, several reports are available for viewing and download directly. Kindly visit the main sites of the author organisations for more complete and updated information. We acknowledge our gratitude to the many people and sources whose work has been drawn freely upon. We thank them all.

"If I have seen farther it is by standing on the shoulders of giants."  - Isaac Newton

Click the links below for more information on nutrition-related programs, organizations, and media features.

Specific Resources on Acute Malnutrition
Ressources Spécifiques sur la Malnutrition Aigüe

  • Audiovisuals, CMAM Forum training section. Link
    Audiovisuels, section de formation Forum PCMA. Lien

  • Barriers to access for severe acute malnutrition treatment services in Pakistan and Ethiopia: a comparative qualitative analysis. [Abstract] Public Health Nutrition Link
  • Extending supplementary feeding for children under five with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates. [Abstract] J of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutr Link
  • Home based therapy for severe acute malnutrition with ready-to-use foods. from Paediatrics and Int Child Health series Link
  • Late presentation to hospital services necessitates greater community-based care for malnourished children. [Abstract] J of Tropical Pediatr Link
  • Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries [Abstract] Archives of Dis in Childhood Link
  • Normes à satisfaire pour les données factuelles dans le cadre des recherches sur « ce qui marche » dans la prise en charge de la MAM. Forum PCMA Lien Previously released in English: Standards of evidence for research on 'what works' in the management of MAM. CMAM Forum Link
  • Prévention de la malnutrition aigüe modérée (MAM) à travers des interventions spécifiques à la nutrition. Forum PMCA Lien Previously released in English: Preventing Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) through nutrition-specific interventions. CMAM Forum Link
  • Prise en charge de la malnutrition aigüe modérée (MAM) : connaissances et pratiques en vigueur. Forum PMCA Lien Previously released in English: Management of Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM): current knowledge and practice. CMAM Forum Link
  • Putting kwashiorkor on the map: Phase two: Information sheet; Nov 2014. CMAM Forum, ACF-UK, UNICEF, WHO Link
    Donner sa place au kwashiorkor : Phase 2 : Fiche d'information ; nov 2014. Forum PCMA, ACF-UK, UNICEF, OMS Lien
  • Safety of using mid-upper arm circumference as a discharge criterion in community-based management of severe acute malnutrition in children aged 6–59 months. FANTA Link
  • Use of innovative information and communication Technology (ICT) in nutrition service delivery. CMAM Forum Link

General resources on health and nutrition
Ressources générales sur la santé et la nutrition

  • A typology of revenue models for community health worker programs. Intl J for Service Learning in Engineering Link
  • Assessing the impact of mHealth interventions in low-and middle-income countries–what has been shown to work? Global Health Action Link
  • Beyond malnutrition: the role of sanitation in stunted growth. Environ Health Perspectives Link
  • Country level programming for nutrition sensitive agriculture.UNSCN Link
  • Developing tools to measure progress on infant and young child feeding. FANTA Link
  • Does maternal underweight prior to conception influence pregnancy risks and outcome? [Abstract] In Vivo Link
  • Echoes from Syria issue 5: mental health and psychosocial support. UNHCR Link

أصداء من سورية - العدد 5 والدعم النفسي االجتماعي الصحة العقلية UNHCRعربي

  • Feeding the world sustainably. The Lancet Link
  • Food and nutrition in numbers. Pocket book FAO Link
  • Food-based dietary guidelines. FAO Link
  • Geographic information analysis and web-based geoportals to explore malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of approaches. BMC Public Health Link
  • Global nutrition targets 2025: policy briefs. WHO Link
    - Global targets tracking tool. WHO Link
    - WHO global nutrition targets: complementary infographics. 1000 Days Link
  • Handgrip strength cutoff values for undernutrition screening at hospital admission. [Abstract] European J of Clinical Nutrition Link
  • Health effects of single motherhood on children in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health Link
  • Improving resilience to nutritional shocks. Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security Link
  • Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam. [Abstract] Global Public Health Link
  • Mainstreaming nutrition metrics in household surveys - toward a multidisciplinary convergence of data systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Link
  • Nutrition and malnutrition in low-and middle-income countries. [Abstracts] Paediatrics and Int Child Health Link Contents Series includes:
    - Nutrition and malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Link
    - Tackling undernutrition in children-new opportunities for innovation and action. Link
    - Prevention of childhood malnutrition: immensity of the challenge and variety of strategies. Link
    - The stunting syndrome in developing countries. Link
  • Nutrition Exchange 4 (available in English, French and Arabic) ENN Link
  • Programming experiences and learning from the nutrition response to the Syrian crisis (includes Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, regional). ENN Link
  • Reframing undernutrition: faecally-transmitted infections and the 5 As. IDS Link
  • The importance of nutritional care in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy Link
  • Undernutrition, the acute phase response to infection, and its effects on micronutrient status indicators.Advances in Nutrition Link
  • Using a community-led video approach to promote maternal, infant, and young child nutrition in Odisha, India.Results from a pilot and feasibility study. SPRING,USAID Link

Country-specific resources related to undernutrition
Ressources spécifiques aux pays liées à la sous-nutrition

  • Can conditional cash transfers improve education and nutrition outcomes for poor children in Bangladesh? Evidence from a pilot project. World Bank Group Link
  • Effect of protein energy malnutrition on the diarrheal electrolyte imbalance in children of Chittagong region, Bangladesh. Indian J of Nutrition Link
  • Nutritional status among the children of age group 5-14 years in selected arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas of Bangladesh. J of Family and Reproductive Health Link
  • Multi-stakeholder partnership in nutrition: An experience from Bangladesh. Indian J of Community Health Link
  • Preferred delivery method and acceptability of wheat-soy Blend (WSB++) as a daily complementary food supplement in northwest Bangladesh. Ecology of Food and Nutrition Link
  • Rang-Din nutrition study: Assessment of participant adherence to lipid-based nutrient and iron-folic acid supplements among pregnant and lactating women in the context of a study on the effectiveness of supplements in Bangladesh.FANTA Link
  • Study on nutritional status of rural school children of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J of Physiology and Pharmacology Link
  • Changes in growth patterns due to nutritional adjustment in children of Northeast Brazil. [Abstract] J of Local and Global Health ScienceLink
  • Seasonal and spatial factors related to longitudinal patterns of child growth in Bwamanda, DR Congo. Earth Perspectives Link
  • Schistosoma mansoni infection and undernutrition among school age children in Fincha'a sugar estate, rural part of West Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes Link
  • The short and long-term effects of development projects: Evidence from Ethioipa. [Abstract] J of Int Development Link
  • Influence of childcare practices on nutritional status of Ghanaian children: a regression analysis of the Ghana demographic and health surveys. BMJ Open Link
  • Nutritional status of school-age children in the Nkwanta South district – Volta Region of Ghana. European Scientific J Link
  • Prevalence of malnutrition in children under five and school-age children in Milot Valley, Haiti. [Abstract] Public Health Link
  • A study of weight gain pattern and associated factors in the children with severe acute malnutrition in a hospital based nutritional rehabilitation ward. [India] Int Archives of Integrated Medicine Link
  • Assessing the prevalence of malnutrition in tribal children using MUAC as a screening tool. [India] F1000Research Link
  • Global Positioning System–a new tool to measure the distribution of anaemia and nutritional status of children (5-10years) in a rural area, south India. Int J of Medical Sciences Link
  • Grades of undernutrition and socioeconomic status influence cognitive development in school children of Kolkata. [India] [Abstract] American J of Physical Anthropology Link
  • Prevalence of undernutrition among Santal tribal preschool children of Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal, India. Int J of Pediatrics Link
  • Prevalence of wasted, overweight and obese children based on World Health Organization cut-offs for body mass index, in an urban slum. [India] J of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences Link
  • Perceptions of food-insecure HIV-positive adults participating in a food supplementation program in central Kenya. J of Health Care for the Poor and Undeserved Link
  • Seasonal variation of child under nutrition in Malawi: is seasonal food availability an important factor? Findings from a national level cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health Link
  • Nutritional status of under-five children in western Nepal. J of Nepal Paediatric Society Link
  • Prevalence of HIV-infection among under-5 children with protein energy malnutrition presenting at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Nigerian J of Paediatrics Link
  • An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Link
  • Malnourishment status of childbearing families in Coastal Area of Sindh Province. [Pakistan] Basic Research J of Agricultural Science and Review Link
  • Impact of implementing performance-based financing on childhood malnutrition in Rwanda. BMC Public Health Link
  • Resilience in the Sahel. Plan Link
  • Socio-economic determinants of child and maternal malnutrition in the estate sector of Sri Lanka. J of South Asian Studies Link
  • Underlying causes of child and maternal malnutrition in the estate sector of Sri Lanka. J of South Asian Studies Link
  • The double burden household in sub-Saharan Africa: maternal overweight and obesity and childhood undernutrition from the year 2000: results from World Health Organization data (WHO) and demographic health surveys (DHS). BMC Public Health Link
  • Life under siege: South Kordofan Needs Assessment. [Sudan] Enough Forum Link
  • Repositioning nutrition in Uganda through advocacy. FANTA Link
  • Investigating sustainable options for treating malnutrition among people living with HIV in Vietnam. FANTA Link
  • Seizing the opportunity to sustain economic growth by investing in nutrition in Zambia. IDS Link



Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLiS)

Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLiS)Bringing together all existing WHO Global Nutrition Databases dynamically, as well as other existing food and nutrition-related data from partner agencies, NLIS is a web-based tool which provides nutrition and nutrition-related health and development data in the form of automated country profiles and user-defined downloadable data. Data presented in the country profiles are structured by the UNICEF conceptual framework for causes of malnutrition and intend to give an overview snapshot of a country's nutrition, health, and development at the national level.

NLIS draws data for the country profiles from available databases. Sources include the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), UN Statistics Division, UN Development Programme (UNDP), Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), the World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and the International Labour Organization (ILO). More recent data might be available from other sources, including in-country sources.

e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actionse-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions


Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action
Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action



Nutrition Landscape Information System
Nutrition Landscape Information System



Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information SystemVitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System


Landscape Analysis on Countries' Readiness to Accelerate Action in Nutrition
Landscape Analysis on Countries' Readiness to Accelerate Action in Nutrition



The WHO Child Growth Standards
The WHO Child Growth Standards



Rapid behaviour change, healthier futures
Rapid behaviour change, healthier futures

From 2010-2014, Alive & Thrive implemented large scale infant and young child feeding programs in three countries: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Viet Nam. Results demonstrate that rapid increases in feeding behaviors -- known to improve child nutritional status and development -- are possible. We are pleased to share our new, interactive website that details our results, comprehensive framework, and learnings from these three countries. We hope this online site will serve as a resource for others to adapt - in different contexts and countries - our proven four-component framework for delivering behavior change at scale. For more information, please visit aliveandthrive.org/results/.


Malnutrition: Meeting the Global Challenge

The goal of the presentation Malnutrition: Meeting the Global Challenge is to strengthen support for nutrition as a priority health and development issue on global and national policy agendas. This process includes tapping into existing networks and ongoing initiatives to add value to local policy advocacy activities, fostering policy dialogue, and supporting program and policy improvements to strengthen nutrition programs. The presentation is designed to provide an overview of the current global nutrition situation, the state of progress in achieving the World Health Assembly’s nutrition targets, and the challenges ahead.


Nutrition for Developing Countries - 3rd Edition

Nutrition for Developing Countries

Nutrition is an essential component of the work of all health and community workers, including those involved in humanitarian assistance, and yet it is often neglected in their basic training. Drawn from the experiences of an international editor team with extensive field experience, Nutrition for Developing Countries brings together the essential basics of nutrition in an easily accessible form which is accurate, up-to-date and practical, and suitable for a wide range of readers at different levels. The book covers the whole life cycle, including pregnancy, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, older children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, with an emphasis on the most vulnerable women and children.

The fully revised and updated edition addresses both the long standing problems of undernutrition and malnutrition, and the growing epidemic of overnutrition and obesity, which are responsible for the rapid increase in non-communicable diseases of later life. Generously illustrated, Nutrition for Developing Countries explains in clear simple language, and practical detail, how nutrition workers can help families with nutrition problems, including many ideas for exercises for training nutrition workers.



Infant Feeding Support for Refugee ChildrenInfant Feeding Support for Refugee Children – #SafelyFed

Infant Feeding Support for Refugee Children is a group of mothers and other interested people, working as volunteers, to gather and co-ordinate support for the infants (newborns to age two years old and beyond) fleeing war and thus caught in the refugee crisis.  As a group we support the WHO recommendations on Infant Feeding whereby milk, preferably mother’s milk, should be the only food given for the first six months and milk feed should be offered freely for a minimum of two years.

Goals:
  • support mother & infant
  • educate, train & support volunteers
  • educate public
  • support IYCF-E aligned groups to fundraise

Infant Feeding Support for Refugee Children Infant Feeding Support for Refugee Children


e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

eLENA mobile phone application

eLENA mobile phone application

Since 2011, the WHO e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA) has provided more than 1 million users with evidence-informed guidance and related information for nutrition interventions. Though the reach of eLENA continues to expand through a steady increase in the number of website users, there is a recognized need for access to eLENA content in settings without regular or reliable internet access.

In order to address this unmet need, the Nutrition Policy and Scientific Advice Unit of the WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development has developed an eLENA mobile phone application, eLENAmobile, which delivers much of the content of eLENA to smartphones and can be accessed anywhere – no internet connection required.

Download eLENAmobile for iPhones and Android smartphones now, at Google Play or the Apple App Store.



Promoting Improved Complementary Feeding (with recipes)

Promoting Improved Complementary Feeding (with recipes)

A Manual for Community Nutrition Promoters
FAO European Union Food Facility Project

This Manual was produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and the Ministry of Health. National master trainers, provincial and district level staff from the three ministries were actively involved in nutrition training activities and facilitated the testing of nutrition recommendations and recipes in communities.

The nutrition messages and recipes in this Manual were developed, field-tested and refined in nine provinces (Kampong Speu, Takeo, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Banteay Meanchey, Siem Reap and Otdar Meanchey) by teams of officers from the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of Health and FAO.

Download full PDF Version (3.6Mb)



'Sight and Life' Library

Sight and Life Library

Sight and Life provides a range of educational materials. This includes books, brochures, and documentaries to support the information needs of health workers, scientists, representatives of governmental/non-governmental agencies, and the media relating to key malnutrition issues.

Publications: books, articles, and technical briefs, Peer-reviewed publications, Infographics: making nutrition issues digestible, Videos & Podcasts: bringing messages home



Adolescent Nutrition: Policy and programming in SUN+ countries

Adolescent Nutrition: Policy and programming in SUN+ countries

A new report published by Save the Children in March 2015 focuses on Policy and Programming in SUN Countries for adolescent nutrition.

The aim of the report is to share experiences from different countries about types of approaches used and challenges faced when addressing adolescent nutrition. This knowledge will help to inform other countries so that they can strengthen their own relevant policies and programmes for adolescent nutrition.

Adolescence is a time of rapid physical growth, second only to the first 1000 day window of opportunity from conception through to two years of age. Therefore, optimal nutrition during this period of life is crucial and targeting adolescent girls in particular, is vital in order to break the inter-generational cycle of malnutrition.

Download pdf



World AIDS DayBreastfeeding: Getting Close to Zero for an AIDS-free generation

Thirty years since the first report appeared documenting transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through breastfeeding, breastfeeding by HIV-Positive mothers has never been as safe as it is now in 2015. So long as several easily achievable conditions are fulfilled, the risk of transmission of the virus through mother’s milk can be reduced to almost zero (0-1%).

» Read complete statement

HIV and Breastfeeding - The findings that transformed policy by Pamela Morrison, IBCLC




Alive & Thrive - IPC & Community Mobilization

Interpersonal Communication-Social Mobilization Brief 2014
Program brief: Interpersonal communication as a component of a comprehensive program to achieve IYCF at scale

November 21, 2014
Getting strategic with IPC Bangladesh June 2014
Tool: Getting strategic with interpersonal communication to improve feeding practices

November 28, 2014
Program report: Overview of the social franchise model for delivering counseling services on infant and young child feeding
Program report: Overview of the social franchise model for delivering counseling services on infant and young child feeding

November 6, 2014
Journal Supplement-Cover
Journal supplement: Designing large-scale programs to improve IYCF in Asia and Africa

October 21, 2014


Where children go hungry in the worldWhere children go hungry in the world

Every day, tens of millions of children go to school—or to bed—hungry. Not only does it take a toll on their studies, hindering their chances of a better life, it also stunts their growth and makes them more susceptible to illness and disease.

Scroll and click around the map to see where in the world children are underweight, which is defined as two standard deviations below the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. It's a pretty good indicator of kids who are chronically hungry.




Updates on the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and childrenUpdates on the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children

This guideline provides global, evidence-informed recommendations on a number of specific issues related to the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children, including in the context of HIV.

The guideline is intended for a wide audience, including policy-makers, their expert advisers, and technical and programme staff in organizations involved in the design, implementation and scaling-up of nutrition actions for public health. The guideline will form the basis for a revised manual on the management of severe malnutrition for physicians and other senior health workers, and a training course on the management of severe malnutrition.
Download: Full document pdf, 2.18Mb



Power of Nutrition: animated video, infographic, and resource guide

Alive & Thrive Resources:
The Power of Nutrition advocacy tools help illustrate the importance of early childhood nutrition in strengthening the future for children, communities and nations.

Nutrition is one of the most cost-effective investments a country can make to advance health and development. That's why developing countries are leading efforts to make infant and young child nutrition a top priority in national policies and programs. These leaders are part of a global movement to mobilize resources, increase investments and scale up efforts to improve nutrition. As this movement continues to grow, together we can unlock the power of nutrition.

Use these tools in your advocacy efforts to improve childhood nutrition and infant and young child feeding.

This video illustrates the importance of early childhood nutrition in strengthening the future for children, communities and nations. Learn more
 

Unlock the Power of NutritionThe infographic can serve as a leave-behind material at meetings or conferences, a poster for office or clinic walls, and an informational piece for press kits, mailings and more.

Power of Nutrition Resource GuideThe resource guide provides additional key messaging around the global movement to scale up nutrition, the action steps for policymakers, the power of nutrition and best feeding practices.

Featured Courses

The New Revised 4th Edition of Wellstart's Lactation Management Self-Study Modules, Level 1 The New Revised 4th Edition of Wellstart’s Lactation Management Self-Study Modules, Level 1 - English
pdf formatpdf 151 pages 1.9 mb - Edición en Español
This educational tool is downloadable without charge.

Visitors are invited but not required to help this tool to continue to be available by donating any amount they wish to Wellstart International, a US based 501(c) (3) non-profit organization that is compliant with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes.

Users are also requested to send your name, professional school that you are affiliated with and an e-mail address to [email protected] so that we may send you updates and alerts about relevant new materials and references.



Caring for infants and children with acute malnutrition

This course, from the University of Southampton, is designed to cater individualised learning for health professionals who have any responsibility for child care, especially paediatricians, nurses, medical students and nursing students. The course is designed to support interactive and self-directed learning.

Based on the WHO's guidelines, the course provides standardised and interactive learning in 3 modules. In the first module you will learn the definition and classification of malnutrition, the visible and invisible changes caused by malnutrition and why malnourished children need different care from other children. In the second module you will learn how to assess and screen children for malnutrition, and in the third module how to manage children with malnutrition. These will include the ten steps for successful management, how community- and facility-based approaches can be integrated to widen coverage and why common conditions such as gastroenteritis, pneumonia and malaria have to be treated differently when there is coexisting malnutrition.

Scaling Up Nutrition
Scaling Up Nutrition, or SUN, is a unique Movement founded on the principle that all people have a right to food and good nutrition. It unites people—from governments, civil society, the United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers—in a collective effort to improve nutrition.


Within the SUN Movement, national leaders are prioritizing efforts to address malnutrition. Countries are putting the right policies in place, collaborating with partners to implement programs with shared nutrition goals, and mobilizing resources to effectively scale up nutrition, with a core focus on empowering women.

With a shared understanding that many factors impact nutrition, each of us has a unique contribution to make. Together we are achieving what no one of us can do alone.

Get Adobe Reader

Progress For Children: A Report Card on Nutrition Nutrition and Children video
Progress for Children: Nutrition Photo Essay Progress for Children: Nutrition Interactive Map Progress for Children: Nutrition Full Report 8.5 x 11 Progress for Children: Nutrition Full Report 11 x 17

Breastfeeding Gateway


Forum on Stunting Reduction: Nutrition & Beyond for Solutions

On October 24-25, 2013, Alive & Thrive and the Government of Ethiopia co-hosted a Forum on Stunting Reduction: Nutrition & Beyond for Solutions. The Forum brought together more than 100 technical experts, government representatives, program implementation organizations, research institutions, donors, and invited international guests. The purpose of the Forum was to explore approaches to stunting reduction with a focus on practical guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of stunting reduction programs. The Forum was structured around the following themes:

  1. causes and consequences of stunting and implications for a multisectoral approach,
  2. multisectoral linkages,
  3. frontline workers,
  4. advocacy,
  5. the role of the private sector, and 6) behavior change.

    The program included presentations, six 3-minute videos relating the topic of the session to the Ethiopian context, A&T TV spots, Q&A, and a panel of donors discussing the way forward.

Presentations:

Causes and Consequences of Stunting

Multisectoral Linkages

Frontline Workers

Advocacy

Private Sector

Behavior Change



WHO-FAO: Second International Conference on Nutrition - 19-21 November 2014, Rome, Italy

The global food system is broken. Millions of people aren't getting enough to eat, and millions of others are eating too much of the wrong foods. Many families can't afford enough nutrient rich foods like fresh fruit and vegetables, beans, meat and milk, while foods and drinks high in fat, sugar and salt are cheap and readily available. Undernutrition and overweight are now problems affecting people within the same communities.

Conference Outcome Document: Rome Declaration on Nutrition - Framework for action


Hesperian Health Guides

Hesperian Health GuidesHesperian Health Guides is a nonprofit health information and health education source that develops accessible materials in many languages. Access free information in Hesperian's HealthWiki related to mother, child, and infant nutrition and malnutrition.

Newborn babies and breastfeeding: Available in English, Arabic, Spanish, Filipino, Français, Kreyol, Khmer, Swahili, Lao, Portuguese, Urdu
Breastfeeding from A Book for Midwives: Available in English and Spanish
Breastfeeding from Where Women Have No Doctor: Available in English and Spanish
Breastfeeding and caring for your baby for women with disabilities: Available in English and Spanish
Care during the first hours after birth: Available in English and Spanish
Care during the first weeks after birth: Available in English and Spanish
Caring for children: Available in English, Spanish, Français, Swahili, and Portuguese
Childhood nutrition: Available in English, Spanish, Français, and Portuguese

More resources from Hesperian Health Guides



10 Years of the Right to Adequate Food Guidelines - Progress, Obstacles and the Way Ahead

10 Years of the Right to Adequate Food Guidelines - Progress, Obstacles and the Way AheadCivil Society Synthesis Paper for the 41st Session of the UN Committee on World Food Security
This paper is a product of a broad civil society consultation process, facilitated by the Global Network for the Right to Food and Nutrition, with the political support of the member organizations of the Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security.

Ten years ago, in November 2004, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) adopted the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security (RtAF Guidelines). Initiated by civil society, negotiated in a collaborative process, and unanimously adopted by all FAO member states, the RtAF Guidelines represented hope for a greater consensus on what was needed to make the human right to adequate food and nutrition a reality for people on the ground. Indeed, by delineating clear steps on how states could implement the right to food, and further still how to take a holistic approach – one that recognizes the importance of legal entitlements, policy coherence, and participation of rights holders – the RtAF Guidelines were set to reshape food system governance.   >   Download the Guidelines



Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2014

Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2014Ten Years of the Right to Food Guidelines: Gains, Concerns and Struggles
New report calls for more democaratic food systems
8 October 2014 - Food security and human rights remain deeply threatened by concentration of land ownership, corporate domination of food systems and policy incoherence, reports the Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2014, officially launched today with the participation of the new UN Special Rapporteur for the Right to Food, Dr. Hilal Elver, at the FAO in Rome.

"As we celebrate the progress made over the past decade, it is important to keep in mind that we will have to work even harder to realize the right to food in order that hunger and malnutrition no longer afflict humanity", Dr. Elver cautioned on the occasion of the ten-year anniversary of the Voluntary Guidelines to Support the Progressive Realization of the Right to Adequate Food in the Context of National Food Security.   >   Download the Right to Food and Nutrition Watch 2014



doctoori.net - reliable health information in Arabic

doctoori.netwww.doctoori.net brings to you, high quality, reliable health information in the Arabic language, through our syndicated partnership with NHS Choices. Our engaging, patient focused articles and interactive tools provide an invaluable, trusted health resource for you and your family.

يقدم لك دكتوري معلومات صحية ذات جودة عالية وموثوقة باللغة العربية من خلال شراكتنا في المقالات مع NHS Choices . تقدم مشاركتنا، المقالات التي تركز على المريض، والأدوات التفاعلية لمواردنا الصحية موثوقة ولاتقدر بثمن لك ولعائلتك.  



Generation Nutrition – a new campaign to end child deaths from acute malnutrition

Generation Nutrition – a new campaign to end child deaths from acute malnutrition>> Download Malnutrition: an everyday emergency: a 10-point plan for tackling acute malnutrition in under-fives.

Child deaths from acute malnutrition could be ended in a generation, according to a new global campaign launched today by a coalition of leading international development organisations.

The campaign puts a spotlight on the plight of the 52 million children in the world suffering from acute malnutrition - 1 in 12 children worldwide. In a report published today, campaigners reveal that 1 million children die every year as a result of inadequate nutrition and that millions more have their prospects irreversibly damaged by the devastating effects of malnutrition.

The organisations launching the 'Generation Nutrition' campaign say it does not need to be this way. The campaign calls for world leaders to agree on a new global target to bring down the number of children suffering from acute malnutrition by millions every year and take action to end child deaths from the condition.

Generation Nutrition is launching a global petition today calling on world leaders to prioritise tackling acute child malnutrition and to ensure that the post-2015 development framework that replaces the Millennium Development Goals prioritises ending child deaths from hunger. Campaigners will present this petition to world leaders at the meeting of the United Nations in September 2014 as negotiations involving every nation on earth get underway.

The launch of the campaign is accompanied by a report entitled 'Malnutrition: an everyday emergency: a 10-point plan for tackling acute malnutrition in under-fives.' >> Download

The CMAM Forum is part of this campaign. Please click here www.generation-nutrition.org to sign the Generation Nutrition petition now.



International Society for Social Pediatrics and Child Health (ISSOP) Position Statement on sponsorship of paediatricians/paediatric societies by the Baby Feeding Industry

Infant and young child feeding is central to child health and, after birth, breastfeeding is the first act of provision by a mother for her child. For most of history no other third party was required to support infant feeding other than the mother and the surrounding family. It is only since the commercial development of breast milk substitutes in the nineteenth century that health professionals have become involved in their prescription.

ISSOP "In recent years, the commercialisation of infant feeding has impacted on professional practice through the development of sponsorship by the Baby Feeding Industry of medical conferences and meetings, along with gifts to health workers.

It is the view of ISSOP that this sponsorship is damaging to the reputation of paediatricians, to the health of mothers and infants, and to the status of breastfeeding and this statement explains the reasons why we believe that such sponsorship should be terminated."

>> Download ISSOP Position Statement

ISSOP is hopeful that the Position Statement will be used with paediatric societies and associations around the world to ensure that paediatricians and other health professionals avoid conflicts of interest, and protect breastfeeding as one of the most health promoting measures in the field of child health.

*The term Baby Feeding Industry refers to all commercial companies which market infant formula or other infant feeding products.



Maternal and Child Nutrition Series - The Lancet
Published June 6, 2013 - Executive summary

Visit the special site on the 2013 Series on Maternal & Child Nutrition

Maternal and child undernutrition was the subject of a Series of papers in The Lancet in 2008. Five years after the initial series, we re-evaluate the problems of maternal and child undernutrition and also examine the growing problems of overweight and obesity for women and children, and their consequences in low-income and middle-income countries. Many of these countries are said to have the double burden of malnutrition: continued stunting of growth and deficiencies of essential nutrients along with the emerging issue of obesity. We also assess national progress in nutrition programmes and international efforts toward previous recommendations.

Read the entire Executive Summary here - pdf.


Nutritional care and support for patients with tuberculosisNutritional care and support for patients with tuberculosis

This guideline provides guidance on the principles and evidence-informed recommendations on the nutritional care and support for patients with tuberculosis.

Undernutrition increases the risk of tuberculosis and in turn tuberculosis can lead to malnutrition. Undernutrition is therefore highly prevalent among people with tuberculosis. It has been demonstrated that undernutrition is a risk factor for progression from tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosis disease and that undernutrition at the time of diagnosis of active tuberculosis is a predictor of increased risk of death and tuberculosis relapse. However, the evidence concerning the effect of nutritional supplementation on tuberculosis prevention and health outcomes among people with tuberculosis had not previously been systematically reviewed.

The primary audience for the guideline is health workers providing care to people with tuberculosis. However, the guideline is also intended for a wider audience including policy-makers, their expert advisers, and technical and programme staff at organizations involved in the design, implementation and scaling-up of nutrition actions for public health.

Downloads: Full text in English pdf, 596kb - Executive summary pdf, 334kb



Toolkit on How to protect and Promote the Nutrition of Mothers and ChildrenToolkit on How to protect and Promote the Nutrition of Mothers and Children

A Toolkit for Stable, Crisis, and Emergency Situations
in Latin America and the Caribbean
Human Development - Health, Nutrition & Population - The World Bank – 2013

Latin America and the Caribbean is one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to major crises and emergencies. The resultant economic and human costs can set back countries' development for years. These crises and emergencies take a toll on the nutritional status of the most vulnerable, especially poor mothers and children. The poorest often live in a constant state of crisis as they are confronted with recurring financial, environmental, and social shocks. The malnutrition that ensues leads to irreversible negative impacts and generates high human, social, and economic costs that contribute to perpetuating poverty.



CMAM ForumCommunity-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM)
Collaborating to improve the management of acute malnutrition worldwide
Améliorer la prise en charge de la malnutrition aigüe, en collaboration

CMAM Forum Resource Update: December 2014
The aim of this update is to share some of the newly available nutrition and health resources on the CMAM Forum website. Click on the "link" to access the document. Please let us know if you have any additional resources.

Mise à jour des ressources du Forum PCMA: decembre 2014
L'objectif de cette mise à jour est de présenter certaines des nouvelles ressources sur la nutrition et la santé qui sont disponibles sur le site Web du Forum PCMA. Cliquez sur le « lien » pour accéder au document. Veuillez nous faire savoir si vous avez des ressources supplémentaires.



The Breastfeeding Mother's Nutrition

The Breastfeeding Mother's Nutrition

  »   Empty calories

  »   Making milk

  »   How much extra should mom eat?

  »   Does mom have to restrict her diet to avoid allergies in her breastfeeding child?

  »   Does mom have to restrict her diet to avoid colic in her breastfeeding child?

  »   Babies under six months need only breastmilk

  »   Main public health impact of maternal nutrition during lactation relates to perceptions, not reality



Maternal and Child Nutrition

Maternal and Child Nutrition

Birthweight, child growth and adolescent growth - all needing good nutrition - determine nutritional status

•   Maternal nutrition influences foetal growth and birthweight, of this and future generations.
•   Maternal nutrition continues to be crucial for mother and child.
•   Adequate nutrition is needed for breastfeeding, and for coping with child-rearing, care and a host of mothers' tasks, and for recovery ...
•   ... for future pregnancies.
  »   Adolescent Growth
  »   Prepregnancy Nutritional Status and Its Impact on Birthweight
  »   Maternal Nutrition During Pregnancy as It Affects Infant Growth, Development and Health
  »   The Consequences of Iron Deficiency and Anaemia In Pregnancy on Maternal Health, the Foetus and the Infant
  »   Impact of Maternal Infection on Foetal Growth and Nutrition
  »   Maternal Micronutrient Malnutrition: Effects on Breast Milk and Infant Nutrition, and Priorities for Intervention.
  »   Vitamin A in the Mother−Infant Dyad
  »   Maternal Protein−Energy Malnutrition and Breastfeeding
  »   Maternal Nutritional Depletion

 

Breeding Crops for Better Nutrition

Breeding Crops for Better NutritionMicronutrient malnutrition, or hidden hunger, afflicts billions of people. It is caused by a lack of micronutrients in the diet. Fruits, vegetables, and animal products are rich in micronutrients, but these foods are often not available to the poor. Their daily diet consists mostly of a few inexpensive staple foods, such as rice or cassava, which have few micronutrients. The consequences, in terms of malnutrition and health, are devastating and can result in blindness, stunting, disease, and even death.

HarvestPlus seeks to reduce hidden hunger and provide micronutrients to billions of people directly through the staple foods that they eat. We use a novel process called biofortification to breed higher levels of micronutrients directly into key staple foods.

HarvestPlus focuses on three critical micronutrients that are recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as most limiting in diets: iron, zinc, and vitamin A. HarvestPlus envisions that in fifteen years, millions of people suffering from micronutrient malnutrition will be eating new biofortified crop varieties. >> Publications

 

Course: Caring for infants and children with acute malnutrition

This course, from the University of Southampton, is designed to cater individualised learning for health professionals who have any responsibility for child care, especially paediatricians, nurses, medical students and nursing students. The course is designed to support interactive and self-directed learning.

Based on the WHO's guidelines, the course provides standardised and interactive learning in 3 modules. In the first module you will learn the definition and classification of malnutrition, the visible and invisible changes caused by malnutrition and why malnourished children need different care from other children. In the second module you will learn how to assess and screen children for malnutrition, and in the third module how to manage children with malnutrition. These will include the ten steps for successful management, how community- and facility-based approaches can be integrated to widen coverage and why common conditions such as gastroenteritis, pneumonia and malaria have to be treated differently when there is coexisting malnutrition.

 

2015 Global Hunger Index: Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger

2015 Global Hunger Index: Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger The level of hunger in developing countries as a group has fallen by 27 percent since 2000. While the world has made progress in reducing hunger in recent decades, the state of hunger is still serious or alarming in 52 countries. 

These findings come from the 2015 Global Hunger Index (GHI) report, the tenth in an annual series that tracks the state of hunger worldwide, regionally, and by country, turning a spotlight on those regions and countries where action is needed most to address hunger.

This report's GHI scores are based on a new, improved formula that reflects the multidimensional nature of hunger by combining four indicators related to undernourishment, wasting, stunting, and child mortality.

The report features an essay, "Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger: Is an End in Sight?" In it, Alex de Waal, executive director of the World Peace Foundation, shares a scoop about a historic achievement. Calamitous famines—those that cause more than 1 million deaths each—seem to have disappeared. He analyzes the reasons behind the famines as well as what needs to be done to prevent them from coming back. 

Although hunger and armed conflict have often travelled hand in hand, history has shown that hunger can be averted. If humanitarian responses in the modern world are effective, conflict need not necessarily lead to the extreme hunger that is famine.

The Concept of the Global Hunger Index [download]
Global, Regional, and National Trends [download]
Armed Conflict and the Challenge of Hunger: Is an End in Sight [download]

Links

Interactive - Report - Interactive Map - Synopsis - Press Release - GHI 2015 Fact Sheet - GHI 2015 Fact Sheet Africa - GHI 2015 Fact Sheet Asia - Launch Event - Data - Tableau Data Visualization - Video: A Decade Of Measuring Hunger - Video: Inside The 2015 GHI - The 2015 Global Hunger Index: The Media Perspective

The Global Hunger Index Interactive Map - 2015

The Global Hunger Index Interactive MapThe Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a tool designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally, regionally, and by country. Each year, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) calculates GHI scores in order to assess progress, or the lack thereof, in decreasing hunger. The GHI is designed to raise awareness and understanding of regional and country differences in the struggle against hunger. By calling attention to the issue, we hope that the GHI will trigger action to reduce hunger around the world.

 

UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank:
Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trends

UNICEF-WHO-The World Bank: Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trendsFor the first time UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank report joint estimates of child malnutrition for 2011 and trends since 1990. Estimates of prevalence and numbers for child stunting, underweight, overweight and wasting are presented by United Nations, Millennium Development Goal, UNICEF, WHO regional and World Bank income group classifications. This is the result of the data harmonization effort which started in 2011. More information and reports

Download the report - pdf, 7.37Mb
Download summary information sheet - pdf, 303kb

 

How to Fight Hunger

Poverty is a principal cause of hunger - it prevents people from having access to food and the tools they need to grow it.

How do we fight hunger? Simple, smart investments in agriculture have saved lives in the past, and today we have the science, innovation, and technology to create sustainable solutions that will feed the future. Hunger: Facts, stats and infographics © USAID

Other Infographics from USAID

Saving 5 Million Children
For their 50th Anniversary, US Aid has pledged to save 5 million children from preventable deaths from 2010 - 2015.
Saving Moms at Borth
Working for the survival of mothers is a human rights imperative and an international development priority...
Foreign Aid Spending
Perception isn't reality when it comes to US foreign aid spending
.
Household Game Changers
Exploring ways that development professionals across the globe are using common household items to help solve some of the world's most pressing problems.
Learning Out of Poverty
Education is the foundation to human development and has a clear multiplier effect with benefits in health, ...
Why Invest in Women?
How investing in women creates a multiplying effect beyond the individual woman, extending benefits to her family and community.
Learning Squared
Investments in education create a multiplier effect that extends beyond the benefits of learning alone...
The Global State of Agriculture
Global agriculture needs to produce 70% more food by 2050 to meet the demands of the growing population.

 

Infographic: The Food Price Rollercoaster

Want to understand how high food prices really are? And how they're affecting the world's poor?

Take a look at this infographic from the World Food Programme, which also underlines how hikes in food prices mean the poorest families have to make painful savings in areas such as health and schooling for their children.

 

The State of Food Insecurity in the World - 2012

The State of Food Insecurity in the World - 2012by David Dawe, Hartwig de Haen, Kostas Stamoulis et al.
UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the World Food Programme (WFP), October 2012 - .pdf - 65 pp. 3.8 MB:

The report presents new estimates of undernourishment based on a revised and improved methodology. The new estimates show that progress in reducing hunger during the past 20 years has been better than previously believed, and that, given renewed efforts, it may be possible to reach the MDG hunger target at the global level by 2015. However, the number of people suffering from chronic undernourishment is still unacceptably high, and eradication of hunger remains a major global challenge.

 

Infographic: Boosting Nutrition, One Bite at a Time

Infographic: Boosting Nutrition, One Bite at a TimeMalnutrition is a global issue that affects billions. Programs like The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrion (GAIN) are reducing malnutrition through food fortification strategies aimed at improving the health and nutrition of populations at risk.

Watch Video: See how baladi bread is making a difference in Egypt.

 

Stunting in children

by UNICEF.Learn about Stunting in Children.

 

Infographics:

Simple Innovations Help African Farmers Thrive
Simple Innovations Help African Farmers Thrive
What's Wrong with Our Food System?
What's Wrong with Our Food System?
Teach a (Wo)Man to Farm
Teach a (Wo)Man to Farm
The Agricultural Multiplier Effect

 

Hunger Reduction Commitment Index

Unlike other hunger indices the HRCI uses indicators derived from a combination of primary data, collected from a perception survey of country experts and secondary data drawn from a variety of publicly available sources. The perceptions surveys, piloted in Bangladesh and Zambia, gathered data from government, civil society, academics, the donor community and others.

These indicators are then grouped under three themes: Policies and programmes, Government expenditures and Legal frameworks.

 

Download report: A Life Free from Hunger: Tackling child malnutritionA Life Free from Hunger: Tackling child malnutrition

15 February, 2012
New global research by Save the Children has revealed that, after a year of soaring food prices, nearly half of surveyed families say they have been forced to cut back on food. Nearly a third of parents surveyed said their children complained that they didn't have enough food to eat.  Download report pdf

"Every hour of every day, 300 children die because of malnutrition … But it's not recorded on death certificates and, as a result, it's not effectively addressed."   - Save the Children

 

 


Photo: Reuters
An internally displaced Somali woman mourns near the body of her son,
who died of malnourishment, next to their temporary home in Hodan district,
south of Somalia's capital Mogadishu,

 

The F Word: Famine is the Real Obscenity

 

Child Dies Every Six Minutes in Somalia Famine


Read about ways you can help here and here. See a gallery of photos from Somalia here.

Somalia famine getting worse

Seven hundred and fifty thousand Somalis may die of starvation this year. That's equivalent to wiping out every single person in Washington [DC], plus 150,000 more.

The scale of the disaster in the Horn of Africa is something difficult to wrap your head around. Consider some of the other numbers:

  • The rate of malnutrition in Somalia is now 50 percent, meaning half of its people are at risk of malnutrition, starvation or death.
  • Some 12 million people across the region need food aid, a number equivalent to the entire population of Illinois.
  • The amount of money needed to stop the disaster in Somalia is $2.4 billion, the same amount of money Warren Buffett made today alone on paper.
  • The United Nations is $1.1 billion short of that goal, the same cost as the initial estimated cost of the damage of Hurricane Irene.

Famine in SomaliaInfographic: Famine in the Horn of Africa
To get a visual representation of the Horn of Africa crisis, consider this infographic from Washington Post / elocal:


16th September, 2011 - MSF


Interactive Hunger Map
This is one way to map hunger – by percentage of undernourished in the total population.
Click here to download the FAO Hunger Map.

 

The Hungry Children Map

This map shows startling facts about nutrition and children in our world where one out of four children from developing countries are underweight. [...]


Scaling Up Nutrition: The UK's position paper on undernutrition

DFID Food and Nutrition - September 2011 - download .pdf

 

Scaling Up Nutrition: Bangladesh Breakthroughs

On July 18 Alive & Thrive hosted an event in Washington, D.C. to show how nutrition is being be scaled up in Bangladesh and achieving impact through active, engaged, and creative partners.

View presentations and materials from the event.

 

Diarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be doneDiarrhoea: Why children are still dying and what can be done
Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five globally. Nearly one in five child deaths – about 1.5 million each year – is due to diarrhoea. It kills more young children than AIDS, malaria and measles combined.

Today, only 39 per cent of children with diarrhoea in developing countries receive the recommended treatment, and limited trend data suggest that there has been little progress since 2000.

more >>

 

Welcome to GROW - Oxfam's new campaign to build a better food system

Welcome to GROW, Oxfam's new campaign to build a better food system: one that produces enough for a growing population and empowers poor people to earn a living, feed their families, and thrive. It's time to build global food security within this resource-constrained world.

 

Malnutrition: A Problem Too Great To Ignore

Despite there being enough food to feed everyone, millions of children die every year due to malnutrition-related causes. The good news is that child malnutrition is preventable and treatable, and cost-effective solutions exist.

Watch Action Against Hunger's latest video to learn more about acute malnutrition and how it can be treated.

 

Living Proof | Growing a Better Future with Sweet Potatoes

Maria Mchele is a mother and farmer in Tanzania who relies on farming for food and income. Through a local agricultural program, Maria learned about a new crop of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, specifically bred to thrive in sub-Saharan Africa. Learn how investments in programs like this have helped farmers increase their incomes by up to 400%.

 

Living Proof | Their Daily Bread

Millions of Egyptians suffer from poor nutrition, including birth defects and miscarriages. Now, a food fortification program is making an edible difference. One family's newest member is living proof.

 

Starved for Attention

Starved for AttentionRight now, the humanitarian food aid system provides nutritionally inadequate foods to malnourished children under two years of age.

Doctors Without Borders / Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and VII Photo present "Starved for Attention," a multimedia campaign exposing the neglected and largely invisible crisis of childhood malnutrition.

This situation must stop.

 

Community based infant and young child feeding

World Breastfeeding WeekAccelerating interventions aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) at community level is a key priority in the effort to improve survival, growth, and development of children with equity.

UNICEF recently developed a new set of generic tools for programming and capacity development on community based IYCF counselling.

Facilitator Guide
Planning and Adaptation Guide
Key Messages Booklet
Participant Materials
Training Aids
How to breastfeed your baby - Brochure
Nutrition During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding - Brochure
How to feed a baby after six months - Brochure
Counselling Cards for Community Workers

In French

Guide du Facilitateur
Guide de Planification e d'Adaptation
Livret de Messages Clés
Materiels du Participant
Outils de Formation
Brochure - Allaitement
Brochure - Alimenter un Bébé Après 6 Mois
Brochure - Nutrition Pendant la Grossesse et l'Allaitement Maternel

 

Save the Children's State of The World's Mothers Report

State of The World's Mothers"Our research shows that a mother's breast milk — one single nutrition intervention — can save a million children's lives each year,... All mothers should have the support they need to choose to breastfeed if they want to. Breastfeeding is good for babies no matter where they live, but in developing countries, especially those without access to clean water, breastfeeding can be a matter of life or death."

 

Final Report: Our global efforts to prevent malnutrition during the first 1,000 days

Final Report: Our global efforts to prevent malnutrition during the first 1,000 daysFinal Report: Our global efforts to prevent malnutrition during the first 1,000 daysDownload .pdf 2.3 mb.

The report summarizes the IYCN Project's accomplishments and offers recommendations for building on IYCN's maternal, infant, and young child nutrition programming that spanned 16 countries over five years.

By focusing on prevention of malnutrition during the critical 1,000 days from pregnancy through a child's second birthday, involving communities in improved nutrition, and strengthening health systems, IYCN aimed to improve the nutritional status of mothers and children and to increase children's chances of surviving free of HIV. These activities resulted in the following achievements:

» Built an enabling environment for improved nutrition
» Strengthened social and behavior change communication programming
» Enhanced complementary feeding programs
» Increased HIV-free survival for the next generation
» Brought women's and children's nutrition to the forefront of agriculture
» Strengthened health systems for healthier mothers and children

 

Translators Without BordersTranslators Without Borders
The work of Translators without Borders is of crucial importance for the success of humanitarian projects. Information available in the local language is much more effective than in a foreign language. This is true for engineering and construction projects (such as digging water wells), and agricultural projects (such as how to irrigate the land). But it is particularly important in healthcare. In many areas in the world people do not only die from diseases, but also from the fact that they do not have basic information about how to stay healthy and what to do to prevent disease.

If you are a translator and you are willing to donate your time and professional skills to Translators without Borders, you will directly support humanitarian projects. To join TWB, we ask you to fill in the translator application form.

 

Hungry Planet Video Series

Hungry Planet Video SeriesOne billion. That's the number of hungry people worldwide. The effects are heartbreaking. The causes myriad. Solutions are needed now to feed future generations. In this series, the UN 's three food agencies - FAO, WFP and IFAD - take us around the globe in search of answers to some of the most pressing questions we face today.

 

HUNGaMA

HUNGaMA - Fighting Hunger & Malnutrition - Survey Report - 2011Fighting Hunger & Malnutrition - 2011
download  Why Is Breastfeeding So Important?.pdf - 7.1mb

The HUNGaMA Survey collects data on nutritional status of children, it also captures the voice of mothers and takes a quick look at the Anganwadi Centres in villages across 100 districts in India. Naandi Foundation deployed a trained team of over 1000 surveyors who interviewed 74,020 mothers and measured 109,093 children in 4 months.

 

Global Health eLearning Center - Nutrition: An Introduction

Research shows that inadequate maternal and child nutrition is the underlying cause of 3.5 million deaths every year and 35 percent of the disease burden for children under 5 years of age.

However, universal coverage of proven nutrition-related interventions could reduce overall mortality of children under 3 by 25 percent.

Are you familiar with the basic concepts of good nutrition?

How does nutrition affect maternal and child health?

What are common nutritional deficiencies, vulnerable groups, and the causes of undernutrition?

The Nutrition course covers the basic concepts of good nutrition and common nutritional deficiencies, the magnitude of malnutrition in different populations, the causes of undernutrition in vulnerable groups, and key indicators and ways of measuring them. It also outlines the major population-based interventions to improve nutritional status. One-time registration at globalhealthlearning.org gives you free access to this and 49 other courses that cover a variety of global health topics.

 

Video Training Materials:

Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition and Out Patient Therapeutic Program - Federal Ministry of Health and UNICEF, Ethiopia

1. Introduction - What is Severe Acute Malnutrition?
2. Community Mobilization
3. Screening for Acute Malnutrition
4. Checking for Complications
5. Appetite Testing Techniques
6. Assessment and Classification of a Child with Acute Malnutrition
7. OTP Admission Procedure
8. Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in OTP and Follow Up
9. Discharge Criteria
Exercise 1 - Assessing for Presence of Severe Acute Malnutrition
Exercise 2 - Assessing, Classifying and Taking Action

 

Solution Exchange– Leverage Knowledge – Accelerate Development

Solution ExchangeSolution Exchange is a Knowledge Management initiative of the United Nations Country Team in India. The brand is recognized by development professionals as a platform for exchange of ideas and dialogue between different stakeholders. SE membership is a talent pool of more than 35,000 subscriptions including practitioners from civil society, grass roots organizations, academics, research institutions and government who come together to share knowledge and best practices, provide solutions and address development challenges. There are 13 Communities of Practice organized around national priorities and MDGs, facilitated by different UN agencies. Solution Exchange (SE) offers a free, impartial space where all partners are welcome members of the community.

Maternal and Child Health Community of Practice of Solution Exchange aids in addressing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) relating to improving maternal and child health and to reducing maternal, infant and child mortality. The community has been in existence for last 7 years with a membership of about 4,000 MCH practitioners, has discussed over 190 issues which are available here- Maternal and Child Health Community - For queries and subscription, write to [email protected]

 

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Babies who are breastfed are generally healthier and achieve optimal growth and development compared to those who are fed formula milk.

If the vast majority of babies were exclusively fed breastmilk in their first six months of life – meaning only breastmilk and no other liquids or solids, not even water – it is estimated that the lives of at least 1.2 million children would be saved every year. If children continue to be breastfed up to two years and beyond, the health and development of millions of children would be greatly improved.  more >>

 

Alliance Against Hunger and Malnutrition

Eliminating hunger and malnutrition cannot be done by governments alone but must involve coordinated action. The Alliance Against Hunger and Malnutrition (AAHM) is a global voluntary partnership where members share a common commitment to the rapid eradication of hunger and malnutrition in the world.

 

WHO e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

10 August 2011 | Colombo/Geneva - In a bid to stop millions of people dying and suffering every year from malnutrition, WHO today is launching a new web-powered initiative that clarifies guidance on life-saving nutrition interventions, and assists governments and healthcare providers to better scale up action against all forms of malnutrition.

An e-library for nutrition
The WHO e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA), launched during today's opening of a three-day Asia regional nutrition meeting in Sri Lanka, helps governments overcome one of the major challenges in fighting malnutrition: the vast, and often conflicting, array of evidence and advice that exists on effective, preventive and therapeutic nutrition interventions.

The online eLENA project does this by prioritizing and presenting the latest advice on tackling the three main forms of malnutrition: undernutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and overweight and obesity.

Publication: Scaling up Nutrition: A framework for Action - pdf 1.2Mb

 

Films for women in the community, community workers and health workers

Medical Aid Films (MAF - MedicalAidFilms.org) is a cutting edge film-making charity. We produce training films and animations for grassroots health workers in low income countries. Our films provide information and medical techniques on issues surrounding safe childbirth and infant health, with the aim of saving the lives of vulnerable women and children around the world.

Approximately one woman a minute dies in childbirth. We hope that by using film and animation to train health workers, we can overcome literacy and language barriers that so often impede learning.

Warning Signs in Pregnancy

This film is aimed at community health workers, traditional birth attendants and women in the community.

Its objective is to educate them about the warning signs in pregnancy that they should be aware of, and the checks they should carry out, so that skilled obstetric care can be sought out as soon as possible in order to save mother and child. © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Reconnaitre les signaux d'alerte durant la grossesse
Ce film s’adresse aux femmes, aux travailleurs communautaires en santé, aux sages-femmes traditionnelles et aux communautés en général.

Il a pour but de leur enseigner les signaux d’alerte lors de la grossesse ainsi que les signes à rechercher, afin que les femmes enceintes qui les présentent reçoivent, au plus tôt, des soins obstétriques dispensés par du personnel qualifié.  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Neonatal Resuscitation - Skilled Health Worker Version

This teaching film is aimed at skilled health workers equipped with a stethoscope and a bag and a mask. It teaches the essential steps to perform Neonatal Resuscitation, based on the Resuscitation Council UK's guidelines. © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Understanding your body: How to plan a pregnancy

This film is aimed at teenagers and young adults and presents the various methods available to plan a pregnancy. © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Understanding your body: How babies are made

This is a film aimed at early teens and young adults. It describes what puberty is and how babies are made using a mixture of animation and expert advice as well as from vox-pop's from young men and women in Nairobi. © Medical Aid Films - 2011

How to use the ultrasound probe

This animation is part of MAF's Basic Obstetric Ultrasound Module. Films of this module are to be used when training midwives and clinical officers in basic obstetric ultrasound. MAF tested this film while training clinical officers and nurses in Mozambique. Very few people living in low resource areas...  © Medical Aid Films - 2011 

Cervical cancer screening: visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA)

This is an animation showing a method of screening for cervical cancer in resource poor, developing countries. Test such as the pap smear require access to skilled health care and labs for testing samples and HPV (the virus responsible for most cervical cancers) testing kits remain expensive, yet VIA...  © Medical Aid Films - 2011 

Ten steps to safe delivery

This follows Neema a village birth attendant while she helps to deliver a baby in a rural setting where there is no access to trained health care workers. The 10 key steps for the audience to learn are then repeated at the end of the film to ensure that they are taking away the correct message.  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Management of PPH - Low resource setting

This animation is aimed at women and TBAs. It teaches how to prevent and manage PPH in settings where skilled obstetric care can be reached within a reasonable period of time (less than four hours). It includes the use of Misoprostol. © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Management of PPH - No resource setting

Primary Post-partum Haemorrhage (PPH) is one of the major causes of maternal death in the developing world. This animation is aimed at women and TBAs. It teaches how to prevent and manage PPH in settings where it would take the woman more than 4 hours to reach skilled obstetric care. It demonstrates...  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Food for Life: What Pregnant Women Need to Eat

Ce que doivent manger les femmes enceintes
Ce film s’adresse aux femmes, aux travailleurs en santé et aux communautés en général.
Il leur enseigne les bases de l’alimentation que doit consommer une femme enceinte ainsi que les complications qu’une alimentation saine permet d’éviter. Il présente les quatre groupes d’aliments (les aliments de base, les aliments pour bouger, les aliments pour grandir et les aliments bonne mine) et détaille leurs bienfaits.  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Food for life: What and when to feed you child?

Quand et comment nourrir votre enfant - 6 à 24 mois
Ce film s’adresse aux femmes, aux travailleurs en santé et aux communautés en général.
Il leur enseigne les bases de l’alimentation d’un enfant entre les âges de 6 mois et deux ans. Il présente les quatre grandes catégories d’aliments (les aliments de base, les aliments pour bouger, les aliments pour grandir et les aliments pour avoir bonne mine) et détaille leurs bienfaits.  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

Food for life: Breastfeeding

Allaitement maternel - 0 à 6 mois
Ce film s’adresse aux mères, aux travailleurs en santé et aux communautés en général.
Il leur enseigne pourquoi et comment allaiter un nourrisson de la naissance à l’âge de 6 mois. Il explique les avantages du lait maternel sur le lait artificiel, rappelle qu’il ne faut donner ni eau, ni tisane ni alimentation complémentaire aux bébés avant l’âge de 6 mois et démontre comment allaiter.  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

The Story of MAF

With experts in the field of Obstetrics, Gynaecology, Midwifery and Paediatrics as founders and trustees of MAF our focus lies on improving the conditions for mothers, infants and children in the developing world who have little or no access to essential health care.  © Medical Aid Films - 2011

MAF: How we work

The growth in mobile technologies across the developing world allows us to blend the inspirational skills of media and medical professionals together to produce our medical aid films. These films focus on bringing education and knowledge to the people that need it the most, including health providers
 © Medical Aid Films - 2011

 

The Case for Preventing Malnutrition Through Improved Infant Feeding and Management of Childhood IllnessDownload pdf4 pages 219 kb

The advent of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) products has greatly improved the coverage and effectiveness treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The excitement surrounding this development has led to rapid expansion of SAM treatment activities, often without regard to the prevalence of SAM, the capacity of local health systems to absorb expansion, or the contribution of SAM to overall child mortality. In the context of limited health budgets, on epidemiological and ethical grounds treatment approaches are in most situations a less rational public health investment than approaches that prevent SAM and other types of malnutrition.


Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition and Out Patient Therapeutic Programme
Training Material

Intended for Health Extension Workers (HEW) on how to do screening for malnutrition, how to identify Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) cases; and how to conduct Out-Patient therapeutic Program for Severe Acute Malnutrition in order to maximize the coverage and improve the quality of services provided to SAM cases at the community level.

Ethiopia Links: Federal Ministry of Health  |  UNICEF  |  Play Therapy Africa


Ghana: Training Guide for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM)
Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) Publications

A significant gap remains between need and capacity for management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children. This is despite clear advances in the development and implementation of international and national protocols for the management of SAM, as well as guidelines and training for inpatient care of severely acutely malnourished children. The Training Guide for Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) aims to address this gap by increasing knowledge of and building practical skills to implement CMAM in both emergency and non-emergency contexts.

This work was supported by UNICEF, USAID and AED. The guide is available for free download.  More information

Copies of the CD-ROM are available by emailing your request to [email protected].

 

Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project

The Infant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN) Project maintains a collection of useful resources on maternal nutrition, infant and young child feeding, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and more. Our collection offers a variety of high-quality training materials, publications, web links, and other helpful resources.

Featured resource: Review of breastfeeding literature

Literature reviewOur latest literature review examines evidence on community interventions to promote optimal breastfeeding. We are grateful to our colleague Dr. Miriam Labbok, Director of the Carolina Global Breastfeeding Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, for expertly composing this publication. Dr. Labbok shared her thoughts on the findings of the review in a recent Q&A.
See the Q&A with Dr. Labbok.

Download Community Interventions to Promote Optimal Breastfeeding: Evidence on Early Initiation, Any Breastfeeding, Exclusive Breastfeeding, and Continued Breastfeeding.

More new IYCN resources

Counseling card: Risks of Infant Feeding Options for HIV-positive Mothers

Helping an HIV-positive breastfeeding mother decide how to feed her child at 12 months: A checklist for health care providers

Technical Brief: Maternal Dietary Diversity and the Implications for Children's Diets in the Context of Food Security


World Health Statistics 2009 report

World Health Statistics 2009

World Health Statistics 2009 contains WHO's annual compilation of data from its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of progress towards the health-related Millennium Development Goals and targets. This edition also contains a new section on reported cases of selected infectious diseases.

Progress on the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Fact sheet N°290


DOWNLOAD THE FULL REPORT

Available in 6 languages
Arabic [pdf 9.35Mb] | Chinese [pdf 6.85Mb] | English [pdf 6.05Mb] | French | Russian [pdf 4.85Mb] | Spanish

 

WHO child growth standards and the identification of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children
A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund - May 2009 - Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report 12 pages 3 mb

This statement presents the recommended cut-offs, summarizes the rationale for their adoption and advocates for their harmonized application in the identification of 6–60 month old infants and children for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). It also reviews the implications on patient load, on discharge criteria and on programme planning and monitoring.

 

Learning from large-scale community-based programmes to improve breastfeeding practices
Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report 83 pages 1 mb

This review provides useful programmatic recommendations based on lessons learned from large-scale programmes to improve breastfeeding practices in 10 countries: in Africa (Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, and Mali), in Asia (Cambodia, India, and Nepal), and in Latin America (Bolivia and Honduras).

A large body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of breastfeeding for child survival, growth, and development. An estimated 1.30-1.45 million child deaths could be prevented each year with improved breastfeeding practices. Community-based breastfeeding promotion and support is one of the key components of a comprehensive programme to improve breastfeeding practices, as outlined in the WHO/UNICEF Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF).

 

Acceptable medical reasons for use of breast-milk substitutes
WHO - 2009  Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report 12 pages - 209 kb

A list of acceptable medical reasons for supplementation was originally developed by WHO and UNICEF as an annex to the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) package of tools in 1992. WHO and UNICEF agreed to update the list of medical reasons given that new scientific evidence had emerged since 1992, and that the BFHI package of tools was also being updated. The process was led by the departments of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) and Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD).

 

The mission of The Countdown to 2015 is to track progress made towards the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals 1, 4 and 5 and promote evidence-based information for better health investments and decisions by policy-makers regarding health needs at the country level.

Countdown to 2015 Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report  111 pages 4.2 mb
Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report

 

World Population Highlights 2007: Malnutrition

This article is excerpted from the Population Bulletin, "World Population Highlights: Key Findings From PRB's 2007 World Population Data Sheet." (PDF: 945KB)
16 pages - 972 kb - download   pdf document

 

Landscape Analysis on countries' readiness to accelerate action in nutrition Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report  84 pages 2.5 mb
United Nations System - Standing Committee on Nutrition
SCN News - No 37 early-2009 ISSN 1564-3743

This issue of SCN News focuses on the Landscape Analysis on Readiness to Accelerate Nutrition Action with Chizuru Nishida of WHO as the Special Guest Editor. It describes the country assessments undertaken in five countries that are part of the 36 high-burden countries identified by the Lancet Nutrition Series. The Landscape Analysis country assessment is led by the countries and facilitated by the partner agencies of the SCN constituencies, including WHO, UNICEF, FAO, WFP, IFAD, Helen Keller International, GAIN, and the Medical Research Council of South Africa, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The Landscape Analysis is an important follow-up to the Lancet Nutrition Series in order to understand how existing commitment and capacity at the country level can be utilized to scale-up the evidence-based nutrition interventions and to further strengthen weak areas.

The outcome of the Landscape Analysis will help the development or the update of country action plans and will facilitate the mobilization of resources for implementation. We hope that the agencies participating in the SCN will look at the process of the Landscape Analysis to be inspired in their approach to programme development, and to draw on the specific results achieved in this first group of countries in setting their action priorities.

 

How are we doing on poverty and hunger reduction? Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival - The 2008 Report  12 pages 313 kb
A new measure of country performance
Ugo Gentilini, Patrick Webb

The paper presents a new composite indicator – the Poverty and Hunger Index (PHI) – to measure countries' performance towards achieving MDG1 on halving poverty and hunger by 2015. The PHI combines all five official MDG1 indicators, including a) the proportion of population living on less than US$ 1/day, b) poverty gap ratio, c) share of the poorest quintile in national income or consumption, d) prevalence of underweight in children under five years of age, and d) the proportion of population undernourished.

Data for the five MDG1 indicators are compiled for the 81 countries which together account for 90 percent of the world poverty and 85 percent of global undernourishment. The analysis shows a weak correlation between undernourishment and child underweight; this is in line with a growing body of evidence documenting that reducing income poverty or improving the food supply without changing the way young children are fed and cared for does little to reduce levels of undernutrition among children.

 

Health and Nutrition Modules
The Sphere Project: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response: Nutrition Training Modules 2004

This is a short technical training course in the Sphere Minimum Standards and Key Indicators for health and nutrition. Practicing health and nutrition specialists have written this course, which is designed to build technical capacity in mid-level technical specialists.

Following broadly the structure of the Sphere Training Modules, these highly engaging materials contain numerous examples and case studies from actual field situations. The nutrition training would take approx. two full days (depending on the audience), and the health training would take 1.5 days (again depending on the level of the audience). They can be run independently, however Sphere Training Module 1 should be given first, as they assume a working knowledge with the handbook in the participants before the training starts. A case study, based on South Sudan in 1988, synthesises information given in both the health and nutrition sections, and can be used over an additional ½ day to consolidate the learning.

This course consists of two modules, each broken down into session plans that are 1-2.5 hours in length. Each session plan emphasises a priority Minimum Standard or Key Indicator from the Sphere handbook. The group of specialists who produced the modules have agreed that the material covered is priority knowledge for the target audience. All together, including the Sphere Project Training Module 1 and the case study, this course would last 4.5 days. It is a worthwhile investment for field staff.

You can download these course materials (trainers notes, exercises and readings) by clicking on the tabulated links below. You will also find a link to the full list of documents provided.

See list of documents  |  Download

 

A Toolkit for Addressing Nutrition in Emergency Situations   87 pages 583kb
June 2008 - Nutrition Cluster - The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)

The basic right to adequate food and nutrition is implicit in any emergency response and is reflected in humanitarian law. The purpose of this toolkit is to provide an easy reference tool for nutritional response during and after an emergency situation. Too often, in the high-pressure context of emergencies, key aspects of nutritional health and well-being are not adequately addressed. Poor decisions are made in the short-term, which have long-term negative impacts on the nutritional stability of the affected populations. Failure to meet the nutritional needs of populations in emergencies jeopardizes the ability to resist and fight infectious diseases. Growth and development, particularly of children and women, is disrupted resulting in increased childhood malnutrition, poor reproductive health and worsening pregnancy outcomes.

The Interventions
  1. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies
  2. Treatment of diarrhoea with ORT/Zinc
  3. Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin A Deficiency
  4. Prevention and Treatment of Micronutrient Deficiencies
  5. Management of Moderate Acute Malnutrition
  6. Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition
  7. Nutrition, HIV and AIDS
  8. The Psychosocial Components of Nutrition
  9. Nutritional care for Groups with Special Needs
10. The Use and Role of Food Assistance
11. Food Handling, Storage and Preparation
12. Household Food Security and Livelihoods

 

Improving the nutrition status of children and women  6 pages 371kb
research findings for development policymakers and practitioners
id21 insights 73 - July 2008

The high world food prices that we are currently experiencing provide a chilling reminder of the vulnerability of large parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to hunger and undernutrition. Many children in these regions are vulnerable to poor growth, poor development and death.

 

Sight and Life Magazine - Issue 1/2008Sight and Life Magazine - Issue 1/2008   64 pages 3.4mb

Perhaps the most far-reaching of SIGHT AND LIFE's knowledge-based initiatives is the publication of the SIGHT AND LIFE Magazine, which carries news, features, letters and editorials on nutrition and health-related projects and research activities – supported by SIGHT AND LIFE or otherwise – from on-the-ground practioners as well as leading experts and policymakers in public health and nutrition. Through the Magazine, SIGHT AND LIFE seeks to provide faster access to new and reusable knowledge and insight to people at all levels of practice from people at all levels of engagement in the fight against Hidden Hunger.

Magazine Archive

This issue: Folic Acid and Arsenic; Combating Vitamin A Deficiency; in Eight Countries; National Family Health Survey of India; Night Blindness in India; Vitamin A Deficiency in Ethiopia; KAP on Iron Deficiency; NIH Vitamin D Conference; A Day in the Life; Critical Review on Vitamin D; News; Letters to the Editor; Publications

 

Infant and Young Child Feeding and Nutrition

Feeding is a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children. Appropriate feeding practices stimulate bonding with the caregiver and psycho-social development. They lead to improved nutrition and physical growth, reduced susceptibility to common childhood infections and better resistance to cope with them. Improved health outcomes in young children have long-lasting health effects throughout the life-span, including increased performance and productivity, and reduced risk of certain non-communicable diseases.

Child Feeding and Nutrition ( 2-5 years age )

Malnutrition contributes to more than half of all childhood deaths, although it is rarely listed as the direct cause. For most children, lack of access to food is not the only cause of malnutrition. Poor feeding practices and infection, or a combination of the two, are both major factors of malnutrition. Infection - particularly frequent or persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles and malaria - undermines nutritional status. Poor feeding practices, such as inadequate breastfeeding, offering the wrong foods, giving insufficient quantities, and not ensuring that the child gets enough food, contribute to malnutrition.

Malnourished children are, in turn, more vulnerable to disease and the vicious circle is established.

Improved feeding practices to prevent or treat malnutrition could save 800,000 lives per year.

  • Counselling for mothers and caretakers
  • Micronutrient supplements
  • Management of severe malnutrition

Adolescent Nutrition

Adolescence represents a window of opportunity to prepare for a healthy adult life. During adolescence, nutritional problems originating earlier in life can potentially be corrected, in addition to addressing current ones. It is also a timely period to shape and consolidate healthy eating and lifestyle behaviours, thereby preventing or postponing the onset of nutrition-related chronic diseases in adulthood.

As adolescents have a low prevalence of infections such as pneumonia and gastroenteritis compared with younger children, and of chronic disease compared with ageing people, they have generally been given little health and nutrition attention, except for reproductive health concerns. However, there are nutritional issues, which are adolescent-specific, and which call for specific strategies and approaches.

The main issues in adolescent nutrition are:

  • Micronutrient deficiencies (iron deficiency and anaemia)
  • Malnutrition and stunting
  • Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic diseases
  • Adolescents eating patterns and lifestyles
  • Nutrition in relation to early pregnancy

 

Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Continued Breastfeeding from 6–24 + Months: Issues, Politics, Policies & Action 6 pages 403 kb

The Joint Statement on Continued Breastfeeding was produced following the WABA GBPM in October 2008 in response to shared concerns that breastfeeding after 6 months has slipped off the policy and programme agenda. Action and investment in improving complementary feeding or providing foods supplements seems to be taking place with little consideration for supporting or improving breastfeeding amongst 6 < 24+ month old children, despite estimates that 20% of deaths in 12 < 24 month age group in developing countries are due to lack of breastfeeding. The statement calls upon everyone involved in improving the health and development of infants and young children to take steps to ensure that continued breastfeeding 6-24+ months is protected, promoted and supported as the precondition for, and foundation of, appropriate complementary feeding. Steps for action encompassing communication, education and promotion; practical support; breastfeeding as part of complementary feeding; definitions and monitoring; addressing misinformation through marketing and special circumstances are described.

Click here for the statement.

 

Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC)  163 pages 1.4mb
A Field Manual, First Edition, 2006

This manual reflects the experience gained over five years of implementing and developing Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC). It is a practical guide that aims to help health and nutrition managers to design, implement and evaluate CTC programmes. It will also be relevant to a variety of others working in relief and development:

  • Field practitioners who want a better understanding of CTC programmes.
  • Project managers with Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and United Nations (UN) agencies addressing problems of acute malnutrition.
  • Government officials within Ministries of Health and other government and middle-level agencies who want to learn about CTC and where it might be an appropriate response.
  • Technical specialists with the UN, donor agencies and non governmental organisation (NGO) headquarters who want to understand what CTC programmes involve and deliver.
  • Evaluators who want to know the issues relevant to CTC.

 

Protocol for the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition  122 pages 2.9mb
Ethiopia - Federal Ministry of Health
March 2007

Guidelines for the Management of the Severely Malnourished  119 pages 3.3mb

http://motherchildnutrition.org/resources/pdf/mcn-guidelines-for-the-management-of-the-severely-malnourished.pdf

Michael Golden & Yvonne Grellety
September 2006

There are about 40 different nutrients that are essential for health. If any one of these is deficient in the diet the person will not be fully healthy and able to resist the agents of disease.

The nutrients are divided into two classes. Type I nutrients are the functional nutrients that are required for the hormonal, immunological, biochemical and other processes of the body to function normally. Most of the micronutrients fall into this category. Individuals can be very deficient in these nutrients and not have any anthropometric abnormalities (i.e. they can have grown normally and have a normal body weight). Anthropometric surveys do not give us information about the prevalence of type I nutrient deficiencies. Their deficiency does cause major illness and increased likelihood of death (e.g. iron, iodine and vitamin A deficiency). Deficiency of several of these nutrients, particularly the anti-oxidant nutrients, is the probable cause of oedematous malnutrition (kwashiorkor).

 

WHO, UNICEF, and SCN Informal Consultation on Community-Based Management of Severe Malnutrition in Children 108 pages 2mb
Claudine Prudhon, André Briend, Zita Weise Prinzo, Bernadette M.E.G. Daelmans, and John B. Mason, guest editors
SCN Nutrition Policy Paper No. 21

Putting the management of severe malnutrition back on the international health agenda

Severe malnutrition, defined by severe wasting (weight-for-height < –3 z-scores or < 70% of the median National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization [NCHS/WHO] reference) and/or the presence of nutritional oedema, is a life-threatening condition requiring urgent treatment. How many lives would better treatment of severe child malnutrition save?

Severe malnutrition: Report of a consultation to review current literature 52 pages 356kb
Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization

Community-Based Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition 8 pages 393kb
A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund

Severe acute malnutrition remains a major killer of children under five years of age. Until recently, treatment has been restricted to facility-based approaches, greatly limiting its coverage and impact. New evidence suggests, however, that large numbers of children with severe acute malnutrition can be treated in their communities without being admitted to a health facility or a therapeutic feeding centre.

The community-based approach involves timely detection of severe acute malnutrition in the community and provision of treatment for those without medical complications with ready-to-use therapeutic foods or other nutrient-dense foods at home. If properly combined with a facility-based approach for those malnourished children with medical complications and implemented on a large scale, community-based management of severe acute malnutrition could prevent the deaths of hundreds of thousands of children.

 

International Malnutrition Task Force

The IMTF is an inter-agency advisory and advocacy group on malnutrition. This website provides a forum for governments, organisations and individuals to share ideas, experiences and resources on the management of acute malnutrition.

Find answers to questions about the treatment of children with acute malnutrition.
Talk to others involved in the management of malnutrition.
Examine the evidence base for the management of acute malnutrition.
View policies on the management of malnutrition from different countries.
Take an online training course on the management of malnutrition, or download teaching materials and job aids.

 

Assessment of Severe Malnutrition Among Hospitalized Children in Rural Kenya
Comparison of Weight for Height and Mid Upper Arm Circumference
7 pages 135kb

Context Severe malnutrition has a high mortality rate among hospitalized children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, reports suggest that malnutrition is often poorly assessed. The World Health Organization recommends using weight for height, but this method is problematic and often not undertaken in practice. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and the clinical sign "visible severe wasting" are simple and inexpensive methods but have not been evaluated in this setting.

Objectives To evaluate MUAC and visible severe wasting as predictors of inpatient
mortality at a district hospital in sub-Saharan Africa and to compare these with weightfor-
height z score (WHZ).

MUAC Resources - Sources for MUAC Straps

 

Every death counts: use of mortality audit data for decision making to save the lives of mothers, babies, and children in South Africa 11 pages 647kb


South Africa is one of the few developing countries with a national confi dential inquiry into maternal deaths. 164 health facilities obtain audit data for stillbirths and neonatal deaths, and a new audit network does so for child deaths. Three separate reports have been published, providing valuable information about avoidable causes of death for mothers, babies, and children. These reports make health-system recommendations, many of which overlap and are intertwined with the scarcity of progress in addressing HIV/AIDS. The leaders of these three reports have united to prioritise actions to save the lives of South Africa's mothers, babies, and children. The country is off -track for the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Mortality in children younger than 5 years has increased, whereas maternal and neonatal mortality remain constant. This situation indicates the challenge of strengthening the health system because of high inequity and HIV/AIDS. Coverage of services is fairly high, but addressing the gaps in quality and equity is essential to increasing the number of lives saved. Consistent leadership and accountability to address crosscutting health system and equity issues, and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, would save tens of thousands of lives every year. Audit is powerful, but only if the data lead to action.

 

Guidance on provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in health facilities 60 pages 2.3mb - WHO - UNAIDS - HIV/AIDS Programme - Strengthening health services to fight HIV/AIDS

Guidelines for the Implementation of Reliable and Efficient diagnostic HIV Testing  48 pages 565kb - PAHO - WHO - Technical series on HIV comprehensive care with public health approach (CC-VIH)


Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl

Breast Crawl

Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl

visit breastcrawl.org for video and complete dossier.

UNICEF, WHO and WABA along with the scientific community strongly recommend initiating breastfeeding within an hour of birth.
 
Evidence shows that early initiation can prevent 22% of all deaths among babies below one month in developing countries.

Every newborn, when placed on the mother's abdomen, soon after birth, has the ability to find its mother's breast all on its own and to decide when to take the first breastfeed. This is called the "Breast Crawl".

This method is evidence based and has been field tested by us. A documentary on the "Breast Crawl" has been prepared for training, advocacy and for wider dissemination. The video has created a very high level of sensitivity among all the levels of functionaries and was officially endorsed by senior policy makers as the right approach for initiating breastfeeding. This dossier provides the background and a scientific overview to the documentary.

We are sure that this documentary and dossier will greatly help similar initiatives worldwide. It is our strong desire that this information helps every mother and baby to experience the miracle of Breast Crawl. If we all could achieve early initiation of breastfeeding, we will be able to prevent 22% of all deaths among babies below 1 month.

This can be achieved by training all health care providers to initiate breastfeeding, by Breast Crawl, to give infants the best start in life.


Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition

A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund

Severe acute malnutrition remains a major killer of children under five years of age. Until recently, treatment has been restricted to facility-based approaches, greatly limiting its coverage and impact. New evidence suggests, however, that large numbers of children with severe acute malnutrition can be treated in their communities without being admitted to a health facility or a therapeutic feeding centre.

The community-based approach involves timely detection of severe acute malnutrition in the community and provision of treatment for those without medical complications with ready-to-use therapeutic foods or other nutrient-dense foods at home. If properly combined with a facility-based approach for those malnourished children with medical complications and implemented on a large scale, community-based management of severe acute malnutrition could prevent the deaths of hundreds of thousands of children.

Joint statement
English 392kb | French 755kb

Press release
English | French | Spanish | Russian | Arabic | Chinese


The WHO Child Growth Standards

India - National Workshop on Adoption of New WHO Child Growth Standards

The WHO web site presents complete information on the WHO Child Growth Standards.

These standards were developed using data collected in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. The site presents documentation on how the physical growth curves and motor milestone windows of achievement were developed as well as application tools to support implementation of the standards.

New international Child Growth Standards for infants and young children provide evidence and guidance for the first time about how every child in the world should grow.

Documentation
The following documents describe the sample and methods used to construct the standards and present the final charts.

WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and development
Acta Paediatrica Supplement
Chart catalogue | en español


Indicators
The following links provide access to the first and second set of the WHO child growth standards (0-60 months):

:: Length/height-for-age
:: Weight-for-age
:: Weight-for-length
:: Weight-for-height
:: Body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age)
:: Head circumference-for-age
:: Arm circumference-for-age
:: Subscapular skinfold-for-age
:: Triceps skinfold-for-age
:: Motor development milestones

Backgrounders

What are the WHO Child Growth Standards?
English [pdf 65kb]| French [pdf 69kb]| Spanish [pdf 63kb]
What impact will the WHO Child Growth Standards have?
English [pdf 65kb]| French [pdf 67kb]| Spanish [pdf 66kb]
WHO Child Growth Standards and Infant and Young Child Feeding
English [pdf 57kb]| French [pdf 55kb]| Spanish [pdf 55kb]
WHO Child Growth Standards and the double burden of malnutrition
English [pdf 60kb]| French [pdf 59kb]| Spanish [pdf 59kb]


WHO Child Growth Standards - Methods and development

WHO Child Growth Standards - Methods and development
Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age
WHO Child Growth Standards - Methods and developmentpdf 26.6 mb - 336 pages

In 1993 the World Health Organization (WHO) undertook a comprehensive review of the uses and interpretation of anthropometric references. The review concluded that the NCHS/WHO growth reference, which had been recommended for international use since the late 1970s, did not adequately represent early childhood growth and that new growth curves were necessary. The World Health Assembly endorsed this recommendation in 1994. In response WHO undertook the Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) between 1997 and 2003 to generate new curves for assessing the growth and development of children the world over.

The MGRS combined a longitudinal follow-up from birth to 24 months and a cross-sectional survey of children aged 18 to 71 months. Primary growth data and related information were gathered from 8440 healthy breastfed infants and young children from widely diverse ethnic backgrounds and cultural settings (Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and USA). The MGRS is unique in that it was purposely designed to produce a standard by selecting healthy children living under conditions likely to favour the achievement of their full genetic growth potential. Furthermore, the mothers of the children selected for the construction of the standards engaged in fundamental health-promoting practices, namely breastfeeding and not smoking.

Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding

Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding
WHO - UNICEF
Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feedingpdf 440 kb - 37 pages

WHO and UNICEF jointly developed the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding to revitalize world attention to the impact that feeding practices have on the nutritional status, growth and development, health, and thus the very survival of infants and young children.

The Global Strategy is based on the evidence of nutrition's significance in the early months and years of life, and of the crucial role that appropriate feeding practices play in achieving optimal health outcomes. Lack of breastfeeding - and especially lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first half-year of life - are important risk factors for infant and childhood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriate complementary feeding. The life-long impact includes poor school performance, reduced productivity, and impaired intellectual and social development.


Management of Severe Malnutrition: A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers

Management of Severe Malnutrition: A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workers
Management of Severe Malnutrition: A Manual for Physicians and Other Senior Health Workerspdf 1.2 mb - 68 pages

Malnutrition remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children throughout the world. Approximately 9% of children below 5 years of age suffer from wasting (weight-for-height below 22 standard deviations (,22 SD) of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference values) and are at risk of death or severe impairment of growth and psychological development.

This manual is based on The treatment and management of severe protein-energy malnutrition, which was published by WHO in 1981. Since then, many advances have been made in the treatment of severe malnutrition. An improved oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution has been developed for the treatment of dehydration. Advances in knowledge of the physiological roles of micronutrients have led to improved dietary management during the initial phase of treatment. It has been shown that physical and psychological stimulation, as well as care and affection, are necessary during the rehabilitation phase in order to prevent retardation of growth and psychological development.

This manual provides guidelines for the treatment of severely malnourished children (below 5 years of age) in hospitals and health centres. The treatment of severely malnourished adolescents and adults is also briefly considered. The manual is intended for health personnel working at central and district level, including physicians, nurses, midwives and auxiliaries.

Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development

Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development
A Strategy for Large-Scale Action - 2006
Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Developmentpdf 1.6 mb - 272 pages - original at World Bank site

Persistent malnutrition contributes not only to widespread failure to meet the first Millennium Development Goal—to halve poverty and hunger—but also to meet other goals related to maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, education, and gender equity. Underweight prevalence among children is the key indicator for measuring progress on nonincome poverty, and malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem—as well as the single largest contributor to child mortality. Nearly one-third of children in the developing world are underweight or stunted, and more than 30 percent of the developing world's population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, new malnutrition problems are emerging: the epidemic of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases is spreading to the developing world, and malnutrition is linked to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development: A Strategy for Large-Scale Action makes the case that development partners and developing countries must increase investment in nutrition programs. This case is based on evidence that the scale of the problem is very large and that nutrition interventions are essential for speeding poverty reduction, have high benefit-cost ratios, and can improve nutrition much faster than reliance on economic growth alone. Moreover, improved nutrition can drive economic growth. The report proposes to the international development community and national governments a global strategy for accelerated action in nutrition.


Counting on Communication: The Uganda Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project

Counting on Communication: The Uganda Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project - 2005 - World Bank Working Paper No. 59
Counting on Communication: The Uganda Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Projectpdf 3.2 mb - 56 pages - original at World Bank site

Counting on Communication is part of the World Bank Working Paper series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This publication is the first in a series of Working Papers sponsored by the Development Communication Division (DevComm) of the World Bank's External Affairs Vice-Presidency. This series is designed to share innovations and lessons learned in the application of strategic communication in development projects. Together with other donors, NGOs, and private sector partners, DevComm seeks to mainstream the discipline of development communication in development practice.

The Uganda Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project was one of DevComm's first projects to demonstrate the valueadded of strategic communication. The strategic communication component developed for this project included the use of formative research about values and attitudes with respect to child rearing, in order to develop and test effective messages. The communication strategy was developed in a highly participatory manner and included nurturing a team of champions for the project among policymakers, district officials, community leaders, and grassroots organizations to advocate for the project. It also included two-way communication activities developed to address the practices and behaviours that would need to be changed in order for the project to be successful, rather than merely disseminating messages based on assumptions of project benefits.

World Bank Working Papers are available individually or by subscription, both in print and online.


2006 Global Hunger Index

Wiesmann, Doris. 2006. 2006 Global Hunger Index: A Basis for Cross-Country Comparisons. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. - October 13, 2006


The International Food Policy Research Institute has released its new Global Hunger Index, an innovative and enhanced approach for measuring hunger in developing and transitional countries. The index reveals hunger hotspots, shows which countries and regions have improved over time, and demonstrates the links between hunger and violent conflict.


Severe Malnutrition

List of publications

Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers Management of severe malnutrition: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers
Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999

Chinese version under preparation. Farsi and Indonesian versions available in-country.

Cover [pdf 465kb] | English [pdf 1.46Mb] | French [pdf 878kb] | Spanish [pdf 142kb] | Portuguese [pdf 263kb] | To order a hard copy

This manual provides expert practical guidelines for the management of severely malnourished children. Addressed to doctors and other senior health workers, the manual explains exactly what must be done to save lives, achieve successful management and rehabilitation, prevent relapse, and thus give these children the greatest chance of full recovery. Throughout, the importance of treating severe malnutrition as both a medical and a social disorder is repeatedly emphasized. As successful management does not require sophisticated facilities and equipment or highly qualified personnel, the manual also performs a persuasive function, encouraging health professionals to do all they can to save these children and meet their great need for care and affection.

Recommended procedures draw on extensive practical experience as well as several recent therapeutic advances. These include improved solutions of oral rehydration salts for the treatment of dehydration, better understanding of the role of micronutrients in dietary management, and growing evidence that physical and psychological stimulation can help prevent long-term consequences of impaired growth and psychological development. Noting that the physiology of malnourished children is seriously abnormal, the manual gives particular attention to aspects of management - whether involving the interpretation of symptoms or the use of specific interventions - that differ considerably from standard procedures for well-nourished children. Details range from the reasons why IV infusion easily causes overhydration and heart failure, through a list of treatments that have no value and should never be used, to the simple reminder that underarm temperature is not a reliable guide to body temperature in a malnourished child during rewarming.

Further practical guidance is provided in eight appendices, which use numerous tables, charts, sample recording forms, instructions for preparing feeds, and examples of easily constructed toys to help ensure that management is thorough, safe, and in line with the latest knowledge.


Micronutrient Sprinkles to Control Childhood Anaemia
A simple powdered sachet may be the key to addressing a global problem

Recent World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund estimates suggest that the number of children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is greater than 750 million. Iron deficiency is the most common preventable nutritional problem despite continued global goals for its control. Historically, the problem of IDA in children largely disappeared in North America when foods fortified with iron and other micronutrients became available for children. In this group, the prevalence of IDA has fallen from 21% in 1974 to 13% in 1994. Although pockets of infants and children remain at risk, generally, the eradication of iron deficiency in developed countries is recognized as a successful public health accomplishment. This solution has not worked in developing countries where commercially purchased fortified foods are not available or are not used.


Severe malnutrition: report of a consultation to review current literatureSevere malnutrition: report of a consultation to review current literature
Geneva, World Health Organization, 6-7 September 2004

Cover [pdf 422kb] | Full text [pdf 364kb]


Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished childrenGuidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003.

Cover [pdf 45kb] | English [pdf 400kb] | French [pdf 1.42Mb] | Spanish [pdf 687kb] | To order a hard copy


Training course on the management of severe malnutritionTraining course on the management of severe malnutrition
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002

Full course under preparation in Arabic and Dari. Flyer available in different languages.

English [pdf 146kb] | French [pdf 1.18Mb] | Spanish [pdf 1.18Mb] | Portuguese [pdf 1.18Mb] | Russian [pdf 235kb] | Arabic [pdf 186kb]


Related publications

Management of the child with a serious infection or severe malnutrition: Guidelines for care at first referral level in developing countries
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000

English [pdf 2.2Mb] | French [pdf 2.3Mb] | HTML format

 

Pocket book of hospital care for children: guidelines for the management of common illnesses with limited resources
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005
High resolution [pdf 10.3Mb] | Low resolution [pdf 2 Mb]

 

Community-based management of severe malnutrition in children

In preparation for the joint WHO/SCN/UNICEF Meeting on Community-based Management of Severe Malnutrition in Children conducted in November 2005, four background papers were commissioned by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development and by the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of WHO. A fifth paper was written by an NGO. These papers can be downloaded from this web page. The meeting report and the background paper are presented by a short introduction paper.

Introduction
Briend A, Prudhon C, Weise Prinzo Z, Daelmans B, Mason J. Putting back the management of severe malnutrition on the international health agenda

Full text [pdf 46kb]

Meeting report

Proceedings of the WHO, UNICEF and SCN Informal Consultation on Community-Based Management of Severe Malnutrition in Children

Full text [pdf 556kb]

Background papers

  • Myatt M, Khara T, Collins S. A review of methods to detect cases of severely malnourished children in the community for their admission into community-based therapeutic care programs - Full text [pdf 297kb]

  • Ashworth A. Efficacy and effectiveness of community-based treatment of severe malnutrition - Full text [pdf 936kb]

  • Collins S, Sadler K, Dent N, Khara T, GuerreroS, Myatt M, Saboya M, Walsh A. Key issues in the success of community-based management of severe malnutrition - Full text [pdf 444kb]

  • Manary M. Local production and provision of ready-to-use therapeutic food for the treatment of severe childhood malnutrition - Full text [pdf 142kb]

  • Gatchell V, Forsythe V, Thomas PR. The sustainability of Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC) in non-acute emergency contexts - Full text [pdf 96kb]

Transformation
Thanks to an appropriate management scheme, from being severely malnourished (weight 4.75 kg), this 2-year old girl not only gained 32% more weight in 3 weeks (weight 6.28), but she also gained an appetite for living.

1. Inpatient treatment of severe malnutrition

Severe malnutrition is defined by a very low weight for height (below -3z scores of the median WHO growth standards), by visible severe wasting, or by the presence of nutritional oedema. Decreasing child mortality and improving maternal health depend heavily on reducing malnutrition, which is responsible, directly or indirectly, for 54% of the 10.8 million deaths per year in children under five.


Although the median under-five case-fatality rate for severe malnutrition typically ranges from 30% to 50%, it can be reduced substantially when physiological and metabolic changes are taken into account. Rates have dropped below 5% in treatment centres applying a WHO-recommended scheme for managing severely malnourished children in hospital settings. In order to train health workers in applying this scheme WHO has created a course which, with the aid of institutional partners in Bangladesh, Chile, Gambia, Malawi and the UK, has been conducted in 25 countries in the African, South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions.

:: Training courses


Management of severe malnutrition

2. Community-based management of severe malnutrition in children

Severe malnutrition is a life threatening condition requiring urgent treatment. Until recently, the recommendation was to refer these children to hospital to receive therapeutic diets along with medical care. The situation changed recently with the advent of ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) which allows the management in the community of large numbers of children who are severely malnourished without medical complications.

A short training video on the RUTF appetite test (following the WHO guidelines) is also available here.


A meeting of experts was organized by the Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development and the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of the WHO, by UNICEF and the UN Standing committee on Nutrition in Geneva on 21-23rd November 2005 to review these recent developments and formulate recommendations. The report of this meeting is available on this web page. It is expected that implementation of these community-based interventions on a large scale along with a strengthening of referral facilities for severely malnourished children with complications could transform the lives of millions of these children.

:: Download documents

Introduction, Meeting report and Background papers

Joint Statement

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition
A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund

Full information

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition
English 383 KB  |  French 738 KB

SCN Nutrition Policy Paper No. 21
WHO, UNICEF, and SCN informal consultation on community-based management of severe malnutrition in children 2.041 MB

Putting back the management of severe malnutrition on the international health agenda 45 KB

Proceedings of the WHO, UNICEF and SCN Informal Consultation on community-based management of severe malnutrition in children
542 KB

A review of methods to detect cases of severely malnourished children in the community for their admission into community-based therapeutic care programs 290 KB

Efficacy and effectiveness of community-based treatment of severe malnutrition 914 KB

Key issues in the success of community-based management of severe malnutrition 434 KB

Local production and provision of ready-to-use therapeutic food for the treatment of severe childhood malnutrition 140 KB

The sustainability of Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC) in non-acute emergency contexts 94 KB

Inpatient treatment of severe malnutrition

Training courses

Training Course on the Management of Severe Malnutrition in Hospitals
Kabul, Afghanistan, 8 - 19 June 2002
Full text [pdf 128kb]

Training Course on the Management of Severe Malnutrition
Banjul, The Gambia, 25 June - 5 July 2002
Full text [pdf 78kb]

Inter-Country Training Workshop on Management of Severe Malnutrition, ICDDR'B Hospital
Dhaka, Bangladesh, 11 - 22 December 2002.
Full text [pdf 95kb] 

Training Course on the Management of Severe Malnutrition
Blantyre, Malawi, 24 April to 3 May 2003
Full text [pdf 36kb]

Facilitators' Training on the Management of Severe Childhood Malnutrition in Hospitals
Lusaka, Zambia, 3 - 8 August 2003.
Full text [pdf 19kb]

National Training Course on the Management of Severe Malnutrition
Livingstone, Zambia, 10-17 November 2003
Full text [pdf 54kb]

National Training Course for Improving management of Severe Malnutrition
Maseru, Lesotho, 20 November - 6 December 2003
Full text [pdf 28kb]

Inter-country Training Workshop on Management of Severe Childhood Malnutrition
National Pediatric Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 26 November - 6 December, 2003.
Full text [pdf 212kb]

Training Course on the Management Severe Malnutrition
La Paz, Bolivia, 2-12 February 2004
Full text [pdf 215kb]

National Training Course on the Management of Severe Malnutrition
Mbabane, Swaziland, 9-21 February 2004
Full text [pdf 18kb]

Facilitator Training in the Management of Severely Malnourish Children in Hospitals
Lahore, Pakistan, 7-10 March 2005
Full text [pdf 63kb]


World Food Programme Presentations

ending child hunger and undernutrition initiative ending child hunger and undernutrition initiative - Copenhagen, 19 June 2006
overview of issues and moving forward
World Health Organization
Presentation: flash 785 kb  |  powerpoint 2.6 mb
Providing an 'essential package' for child survival: WFP and UNICEF in Ethiopia Providing an 'essential package' for child survival: WFP and UNICEF in Ethiopia
Government of Ethiopia - World Food Programme - UNICEF
World Health Organization
Presentationflash 100 kb  |  powerpoint 666 kb
End Child Hunger and Undernutrition Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean End Child Hunger and Undernutrition Initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean
United in the Battle to End Child Hunger - WFP Global Meeting Copenhagen - June 2006
World Food Programme - UNICEF
World Health Organization
Presentationflash 187 kb  |  powerpoint 424 kb

 

Facts for Life

Facts for Life saves lives!

Home
What is Facts for Life?
Using Facts for Life
Timing Births
Safe Motherhood and Newborn Health
Child Development and Early Learning
Breastfeeding
Nutrition and Growth
Immunization
Diarrhoea
Coughs, Colds and More Serious Illnesses
Hygiene
Malaria
HIV
Child Protection
Injury Prevention
Emergencies: Preparedness and Response

PDF and Word versions Resources

Each year, around 9 million children die from preventable and treatable illnesses before reaching their fifth birthday. Many die during their first year of life. Countless more children live in precarious situations and face diminished futures. The handbook, Facts for Life, provides vital messages and information for mothers, fathers, other family members and caregivers and communities to use in changing behaviours and practices that can save and protect the lives of children and help them grow and develop to their full potential.

This version of Facts for Life builds on the three previous editions, which have been helping families and communities around the world since 1989. Newborn Health has been added to the Safe Motherhood chapter, giving attention to child survival from the first stage of life. A new chapter, Child Protection, has been included, focusing attention on the actions needed to ensure children grow up in protective environments.

Facts for Life is a trusted resource that is written in easy-to-understand language. It has been translated into 215 languages, with over 15 million copies of the previous editions in circulation worldwide. Users are encouraged to be innovative in finding ways to extend the reach of the Facts for Life messages to help families and communities realize the rights of children and women everywhere!


Dr. R. K. Anand's Guide to Child Care: For pregnant mothers and parents of infants, young children, and teenagers

Dr. R. K. Anand's Guide to Child Care

This guide is for pregnant mothers and  parents of infants, young children, and teenagers. A definitive guide to the parent on pregnancy and childrearing from infancy to the teenage years. Authored by one of India's foremost paediatricians and an internationally renowned authority on breastfeeding, the book combines a knowledge of traditional childrearing practices with the latest medical developments in child care.

Dr. Anand's Guide to Child Care answers questions such as:

  • Is there a right age to have a baby?

  • What can I do when my baby cries?

  • Can a working mother successfully breastfeed?

  • How helpful is a joint family in bringing up children?

  • How should we handle our fussy eater?

  • Is my child ready for toilet-training?

  • Are vaccines safe?

  • When is the right age for sex education?

  • How can I raise a happy child?

  • Are drugs overprescribed for childhood illnesses?

  • How should we handle our teenager?

  • What should I do in a medical emergency?


The Management of Diarrhoea and Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy

The Management of Diarrhoea and Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy - Second Edition - A Joint WHO/UNICEF Statement

Audience:

prepared by WHO/UNICEF
1992

30 pages - The Management of Diarrhoea and Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy in pdf formatpdf 626 kb


Prevention and Control of Nutritional Anaemia: A South Asia Priority

Prevention and Control of Nutritional Anaemia: A South Asia Priority

Audience:

United Nations Children's Fund - Regional Office for South Asia - 2002

16 pages - Prevention and Control of Nutritional Anaemia: A South Asia Priority in pdf formatpdf 2 mb


Preventing and Controlling Iron Deficiency Anaemia Through Primary Health Care

Preventing and Controlling Iron Deficiency Anaemia Through Primary Health Care

Audience: A Guide for Health Administrators and Programme Managers

E. M. DeMaeyer
Formerly Medical Officer, Nutrition, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
with the collaboration of P. Dallman, J. M. Gurney, L. Hallberg, S. K. Sood & S. G. Srikantia
1989

61 pages - Preventing and Controlling Iron Deficiency Anaemia Through Primary Health Care in pdf formatpdf 1.7 mb


Off-site links

Pathfinder International is pleased to announce the publication of Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV through Dried Blood Spot Testing: Pathfinder International/Kenya's Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Project. Pathfinder/Kenya integrated dried blood spot testing for early infant
diagnosis of HIV into its prevention of mother-to-child transmission project in August 2006. This paper describes the process of dried blood spot testing and provides results from the project's first year of implementation.

The document can be downloaded at http://www.pathfind.org/Pubs_AIDS

Hard copies are available by contacting: [email protected]

Please pass this message on to interested colleagues. If you're interested in receiving emails about other Pathfinder International projects, you may sign up for email updates here:
http://www.pathfind.org/Register

Publications by Theme

HIV/AIDS

(PDFs are viewed with the free Acrobat Reader)

 

Kenya EID 

Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV through Dried Blood Spot Testing: Pathfinder International/Kenya's Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Project, 2007

Pathfinder/Kenya integrated dried blood spot testing for early infant diagnosis of HIV into its prevention of mother-to-child transmission project in August 2006. This paper describes the process of dried blood spot testing and provides results from the project's first year of implementation.

 

 

The Essentials of Antiretroviral Therapy 

The Essentials of Antiretroviral Therapy for Health Care and Program Managers, 2007

This document provides basic information and practical guidance on antiretroviral therapy and wider care and treatment issues for program implementers and health care managers. It includes information on vigorous prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, nutrition support, and spiritual, psychosocial, and economic support, and discusses community participation and services necessary for use of facility-based services.

 

Community Home-Based Care Training Course and HandbookCommunity Home-Based Care for People and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS, 2006 

A Comprehensive Training Course and Handbook for Community Health Workers.

 

HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets

HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets

These two-page fact sheets highlight Pathfinder's prevention, care, and support projects in 13 countries, as well as Pathfinder's expertise in key HIV/AIDS program areas, such as home-based care and prevention of mother-to-child transmission.

 

Mapping of Community Home-Based Care Services in Tanzania

Mapping of Community Home-Based Care Services in Five Regions of the Tanzania Mainland, 2006

The study documents the concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS, community health workers, primary care providers, and other stakeholders to inform Pathfinder's support to national efforts to scale-up community home-based care. The proposed project aims to replicate Pathfinder's successful community home-based care model in other areas and improve access to home-based care for more Tanzanians.
 

 

Preventing the Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS in Kenya

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya: Pathfinder International's Experience: 2002-2005

This publication documents Pathfinder's collaboration with public, private, and faith-based partners in Kenya in developing new and effective programs to prevent transmission of HIV from mother to child.

 

Integrating Reproductive Health and AIDS Services 

Integrating SRH and HIV/AIDS Services: Pathfinder International's Experience Synergizing Health Initiatives, 2005

This paper examines how integrating reproductive health and family planning services with HIV/AIDS services is an essential step in effectively maximizing impact and resources to confront the raging AIDS epidemic, elevated maternal and infant mortality rates, and the unmet need for contraception worldwide.

 

The NARF Handbook 

The NARF Handbook on Incorporating Gender and Human Rights in HIV/AIDS Training, 2004

This publication from the Nigeria AIDS Response Fund acts as a comprehensive guide for using a gender and human rights strategy to achieve results in curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

 

 

Integrating PMTCT into Reproductive Health Programs

Technical Guidance Series: Integrating PMTCT into Existing Maternal, Child, and Reproductive Health Programs, 2003


Free Downloads from Hesperian

Hesperian Home > Publications and Resources > Downloads

Hesperian has made a commitment to publish online versions of all of our books and to keep those online editions up-to-date, incorporating all corrections and revisions as they are made.

Presently we have materials from the following publications:

Where There Is No Doctor
Where Women Have No Doctor
Helping Children Who Are Deaf

We will be posting online versions of all of our publications in the coming months, so please visit our site [ Downloads ] again soon to see what new resources are available. The entire books are now available for download in pdf format pdf

We are happy to have other organizations link to our online publications, but in order to prevent out-of-date or altered editions of our publications from being accessed online, we do not allow Hesperian publications to be posted on other sites without our explicit permission.

Where There Is No Doctor

Where There Is No Doctor Where There Is No Doctor
A village health care handbook
by David Werner with Carol Thuman and Jane Maxwell
Updated 2003 - 512 pages, illustrated - English ed. ISBN: 0-942364-15-5

Hesperian's classic manual, Where There Is No Doctor, is perhaps the most widely used health care manual for health workers, clinicians, and others involved in primary health care delivery and health promotion programs around the world. With millions of copies in print in more than 70 languages, the book is an irreplaceable health resource in communities worldwide.

As with all Hesperian books, the manual provides practical, easily understood information on how to diagnose, treat, and prevent common diseases. Special attention is focused on nutrition, infection and disease prevention, as well as the use of diagnostic techniques as primary ways to prevent and treat health problems.

The entire book is now available for download in pdf format pdf

To buy the complete book, visit our online store


Where Women Have No Doctor

Where Women Have No Doctor Where Women Have No Doctor
A health guide for women
by A. August Burns, Ronnie Lovich, Jane Maxwell, and Katharine Shapiro
paperback - 596 pages, illustrated - English ed. ISBN: 0-942364-25-2

Where Women Have No Doctor combines self-help medical information with the tools for organizing against the poverty and discrimination that impacts women's health and access to medical care. The first community-based health book for women, Where Women Have No Doctor serves as an essential resource for any woman or girl wanting to improve her health. Developed with the help of community-based groups, village health workers, and women's health experts in more than 30 countries, the manual gives treatment information for many health problems that affect only women or affect women differently from men. Topics covered include: ways to stay healthy; understanding the reproductive parts of women's bodies; mental health; politics of women's health; nutrition; pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding; HIV/AIDS and other STI's; rape and violence against women; health concerns of girls, women with disabilities, refugee women, and older women; how to use medicines safely. Click here to see the complete table of contents.

The entire book is now available for download in pdf format pdf

To buy the complete book, visit our online store

Useful Links


WHO Resources

Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD)

Reproductive Health and Research (RHR

UNAIDS

General

Planning

Guidelines and Training

Monitoring and Evaluation

Research

Other Resources

FAO - Download Assessment of the double burden of malnutrition in six case study countriesin pdf formatpdf, zipped, 2.1 mb

Bridging The Nutritional Divide. Swaminathan, M.S. The Little Magazine. 17th International Congress on Nutrition, Vienna, August 2001.

Early Years. UNICEF. 6 Aug. 2005

Chronic Hunger and Obesity Epidemic. Gardner, Gary. Worldwatch Organization. 2 Aug. 2005

The Asian Diet Pyramid. Gifford, K. Oldways. Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust. 20 June 2005

India has an Enormous Under-Nutrition and Over-Nutrition Problems. Haddad, Dr. Lawrence. 29 June, 2005

Child Malnutrition: Myths and Solutions. Kumar, A.K. Shiva. The Little Magazine. UNICEF. 27 June 2005

Food Fight For Hunger. Prasenjit Maiti. Council for Development Studies. 4 Aug. 2005

World Hunger Awareness

Global Database on Child Growth & Malnutrition (FAO)

Food Security Statistics (FAO)

Information on Vegetarian & Vegan Diets (PCRM)

The Gluten Allergy Guide from Answers.com

Malnutrition Matters

Malnutrition (WikiPedia)

Malnutrition (WHO)

Nutrition Publications (WHO)

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM)

Repositioning Nutrition as Central to Development: A Strategy for Large Scale Action (World Bank)

UN Millennium Development Goals

Women - The key to ending hunger (The Hunger Project)

World Hunger Map: [Asia] [Latin America & Caribbean] [Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe] [West Africa] [Southern Africa] [East & Central Africa]



15 July, 2016
 


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