Recent global data indicate that 25% of children under five years of age (i.e. 161 million) have stunted growth.
The same sources show that stunting is the cause of an estimated one million child deaths annually. For survivors, the short- and long-term consequences of stunting include: impaired health, growth, cognitive development, school readiness and learning in children; increased risk of obstetric complications and mortality in women; and reduced height, productivity and earnings in adults.
Stop Stunting Matters
Stop Stunting Matters 39: A review of evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes.
This review examines the evidence on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood and economic growth.
Long-term evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to programmes (25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost benefit ratios of nutrition interventions had a median value of 17.9:1. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, the authors found that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase for men and 6% for women.
The authors conclude that countries with high stunting prevalence, including those in South Asia, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments in the well-being of their populations and their economies.
Stop Stunting Matters 38: Nutrition in adolescent girls in South Asia.
Adolescence is an opportune time to intervene to improve the nutritional status of adolescents as well as the next generation of children. This review examines the nutritional status of adolescent girls in South Asia and suggests ways to improve their nutrition.
Undernutrition and anaemia affect over 50% of adolescent girls in South Asia and improvements have been slow. Poor diets prevent catch-up growth in adolescence and intergenerational growth of gains. Meanwhile, overweight and obesity are emerging problems anffecting up to 24% of adolescent girls in the region and raising the risks of diet-related non-communicable diseases.
Large-scale multisectoral national programmes for adolescent girls are needed and their coverage, effectiveness, and equity must be monitored. Policies, legislation and social change efforts to delay the age at marriage and first pregnancy are crucial. When adolescent girls do become pregnant, they require better access to nutrition counselling and support in the communities where they live.
Stop Stunting Matters 37: Risk factors for childhood stunting in 137 developing countries.
This paper analyzed the burden of stunting that was attributable to 18 risk factors grouped into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection; teenage motherhood and short birth intervals; fetal growth restriction and preterm birth; child nutrition and infection; and environmental factors (unimproved water, unimproved sanitation, and biomass fuel use).
In South Asia, 40.9% of the stunting cases was attributable to fetal growth restriction and preterm birth, 24.5% to environmental factors, and 19.2% to maternal nutrition and infection. The findings indicate that efforts to further reduce stunting should focus on fetal growth restriction and poor sanitation. This will require prevention programmes that reach mothers to improve nutrition before and during pregnancy and that improve sanitation.
Stop Stunting Matters 35: Schooling and income losses due to child stunting in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.
Stunting in early childhood is associated with reduced educational attainment, which is highly predictive of adult income. This study estimates the impact of stunting on children's educational attainment and future incomes.
The authors estimate that stunting causes a loss of 69 million years of educational attainment and $177 billion per birth cohort. Losses are largest in South Asia, with 28 million years of schooling and $47 billion lost per child cohort. The expected gains in schooling and future incomes from eliminating stunting are largest in India; $38 billion per birth cohort.
The authors conclude that further investments in scaling up interventions to stop stunting are urgently needed and likely to yield a $3 benefit for every $1 invested from improvements in educational attainment only, ont taking into account other benefits generated by improved human capital and long-term health outcomes.
Stop Stunting Matters 34: Achieving maternal and child health (and nutrition!) gains in Afghanistan.
This Countdown to 2015 case study indicates that the prevalence of child stunting in Afghanistan declined by roughly a third: from about 61% in 2004 to 43% in 2013.
Despite such progress, the prevalence of stunting is still high. Little information is available on maternal nutrition and nutrition of women (especially that of adolescent girls) or the proportion of newborns that are small for gestational age, both important determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children.
The authors conclude that to reduce stunting further, Afghanistan will need to invest in comprehensive nutrition-specific interventions for women and children while addressing environmental health and other nutrition-sensitive interventions. These measures must be supplemented and additional safety nets, such as cash transfers, preferably conditioned on the uptake of evidence-based preventitive and promotive nutrition services and practices.
Stop Stunting Matters 33: Stop Stunting in South Asia: A special issue of the international journal Maternal and Child Nutrition.
This special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition posits that stunting is holding back the development of South Asian children and nations. An estimated 38 percent of South Asian children have stunted growth. Stop Stunting in South Asia documents three main drivers of child stunting in the region: 1) the poor diets of children in the five years of life; 2) the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy; and 3) the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities. It also offers evidence that economic growth with commensurate investments in evidence-based programmes that place emphasis on the most vulnerable children and households hold the key to reducing child stunting at scale.
Enjoy and share Stop Stunting in South Asia, 20 open access articles by 60 authors from 25 different organizations and a photo exhibition commissioned by UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia and available at stopstunting.org.
Stop Stunting in South Asia | Research Papers | Photo Exhibition
Stop Stunting Matters 32: Investing in nutrition. The foundation for development. An investment framework to reach the global nutrition targets.
Reaching the targets to reduce stunting among children and anemia in women, increase exclusive breastfeeding rates, and mitigate the impact of wasting will require an average annual investment of about $11 billion over the next 10 years. Thihs implies that it these targets are to be met, $7 billion need to be invested in addition to the $3.9 billion that the world currently spends on nutrition annually.
This additional annual investment of $7 billion over the next ten years can yield tremendous returns: 3.7 million child lives saved, at least 65 million fewer stunted children, 105 million more children exclusively breastfed, and 265 million fewer women suffering from anemia as compared to the 2015 baseline. Achieving these targets is within reach if governments and development partners work together to immediately step up investments in nutrition.
Stop Stunting Matters 31: First Foods. Accelerating Progress on Complementary Feeding in Young Children. Recommendations from the global meeting in Mumbai, India
Global indicators show that in most low- and middle-income countries complementary feeding practices are far from optimal. Data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan - where 99% of South Asia's stunted children live - shows that the proportion of children 6-23 months old who are fed a minimally adequate diet ranges from 12% to 24%.
With 2015 coming to an end, it was important to discuss if programmes to improve complementary feeding for children aged 6-23 months globally are fit for the purpose of achieving the global nutrition targets post-2015. Thhis publication summarizes the discussions and recommendations of a global meeting on this subject convened by UNICEF and the Government of Maharashtra on 17-19 November 2015 in Mumbai, India.
Stop Stunting Matters 30: Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.
This analysis uses nationally representative data (5,235 children less than 2 years of age and their mothers) from Nepal DHS surveys 2001-2011. It assesses the association between maternal iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy and child stunting in the first two years of life.
The authors find that: 1) the risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not; 2) the risk of being stunted was reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤ 6 months and mothers took ≥ 90 IFA supplements during pregnancy. suggesting a timing- and dose-dependent response.
Stop Stunting Matters 29: Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India. Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.
Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India.
Using nationally representative data, this paper finds that the five most important predictors of child stunting in India are: 1) mothers being too short; 2) mothers having no education; 3) household being in the lowest wealth quintile; 4) children's diets being too poor (lack of diet diversity); and 5) mothers being underweight. These five factors had a combined population attributable risk of 67.2% for stunting.
These finds underscore the importance of improving the diets of children and women (nutrition specific programming) while improving the overall environmental and socioeconomic conditions at the child, maternal and household levels (nutrition sensitive programming).
Stop Stunting Matters 28: The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) Trial.
Child stunting and anemia have profound short- and long- term consequences. The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is motivated by the premise that environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a major underlying cause of stunting and anemia and that EED is primarily caused by high fecal ingestion.
The SHINE is testing the independent and combined effects on child stunting and anemia of: 1) improved infant feeding (nutritional adequacy of young children's diets); and 2) improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (protecting young children from fecal ingestion).
All you ever wanted to know about SHINE, EED, how child feeding and EDD may relate to stunting and anemia, and a lot more (including mycotoxins, microbiota and maternal capabilities) is found in these 9 open-access articles published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
For SHINE trial papers (open access) click here
Stop Stunting Matters 27: Water, sanitation, hygiene, and nutrition in Bangladesh. Can building toilets affect children's growth?
Improving nutrition outcomes with better water, sanitation and hygiene. Practical solutions for policies and programmes
Bangladesh is proof that eliminating open defecation is not sufficient to stop stunting.
In Bangladesh, open defecation has reduced from 42% in 2003 to 1% in 2015. Yet, levels of child stunting remain comparable to those of India, where 44% of people defecate in the open. Therefore, reducing open defecation cannot be considered 'mission accomplished.'
The authors argue that in Bangladesh, hygiene remains the weakest WASH link. During handwashing demonstrations, only 13% of children aged 3-5 years and 57% of mothers washed both hands with soap. In addition, the authors remind us that improving WASH interventions will bring about positive change in children's frowth only if children are fed appropriate foods in quantity and quality and benefit from adequate childcare practices.
Stop Stunting Matters 26: Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informat settlements in Mumbai, India.
The study examines feeding practices in 7,450 children living in 40 urban informal settlement areas in Mumbai, India.
45% of the children were stunted, 16% were wasted, and 4% were overweight. 43% were fed a minimum number of times per day (frequency), 13% were fed with a minimum number of food groups per day (diversity), and only 5% were fed a minimally adequate diet.
About 63% of children in the first year of life were fed sugary snacks in the preceding 24 hours, rising to 78% among children in the second year of life. 66% of children under two had eaten fried or salted snack foods.
The authors conclude that the ubiquity of sugary, fried, and salted snack foods is a serious concern. Substantial consumption begins in infancy and exceeds that of all other food groups except grains, roots, and tubers.
Stop Stunting Matters 25: The effect of mother's educational status on early initiation of breastfeeding in Nepal.
This study assesses the effect of mother's education on early initiation of breastfeeding - within one hour of birth - using data from Nepal's DHS surveys in 2001, 2006, and 2011.
The study finds that maternal education was associated with a higher likelihood of early initiation of breastfeeding. In most recent DHS (2011), the odds of early initiation of breastfeeding were 52% higher among mothers with primary education and over 2-fold higher among mothers with secondary or higher education than among mothers with no education after controlling for other covariates.
The authors copnclude that while efforts to improve women's education continue, immediate attention needs to be provided to mothers with no or less education through alternative education and supportive interventions like prenatal and postnatal counselling support.
Stop Stunting Matters 24: Stop Stunting in South Asia. A Common Narrative on Maternal and Child Nutrition. UNICEF South Asia Strategy 2014-2017
UNICEF headline result on Maternal and Child Nutrition in South Asia is to reduce the number of stunted children aged 0-59 months by 12 million between 2014 and 2017.
UNICEF South Asia places the 1,000-day window of opportunity - from conception to age two years - at the center of its programming, and supports the scale up of evidence-based nutrition-specific interventions and nutrition-sensitive development.
This document has three objectives: (1) summarize UNICEF programmatic priorities and strategies to achieve the headline result on stunting reduction in South Asia; (2) review the evidence base on nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to address maternal and child undernutrition in low-income and middle-income countries; and (3) create a common narrative on maternal and child nutrition across UNICEF programmes in South Asia.
Stop Stunting Matters 23: Global Hunger Index 2015
Each year, IFPRI calculates the Global Hunger Index (GHI) scores to assess progress in reducing hunger globally, regionally and by country.
In 2015, the GHI scores have been calculated using an improved formula. The revision replaces child underweight, previously the sole indicator of child undernutrition, with two indicators of child undernutrition - child wasting and child stunting - which are equally weighted in the GHI calculation for 117 countries.
The GHI and ranking for South Asian countries are as follows: Nepal: GHI 22.2 | ranking 58; Sri Lanka 25.5 | 69; Bangladesh 27.3 | 73; India 29.0 | 80; Pakistan 33.9 | 93; Afghanistan 35.4 | 97. In terms of performance - measured as the percent reduction in GHI since 2000 - the best performance is recorded by Nepal followed by Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka respectively. No data are available for Bhutan and Maldives.
Stop Stunting Matters 22: Linear growth and child development in low- and middle-income countries. A meta-analysis.
The authors analyze 68 studies conducted in 29 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to assess the association between linear growth and development in children.
The study finds a robust positive association between linear growth in the first two years of life and children's concurrent (first two years of life) and future (5-11 year of age) cognitive and motor development. This suggests that, without intervention, children who suffer restricted linear growth in the first two years of life experience cognitive and motor deficits that persist throughouot childhood.
Effective interventions to prevent poor linear growth and stunting in the first two years of life are needed to improve child development in children living in LMICs.
Stop Stunting Matters 21 two important reference documents: The 2015 Global Child Malnutrition Estimates and the 2015 Global Nutrition Report.
The 2015 Global Child Malnutritiono Estimates indicate that child stunting rates dropped from 39.6% in 1990 to 23.8% in 2014 (i.i. a 40% reduction). 159 million children across the globe have stunted growth while the number of overweight children (41 million) is almost as high as the number of wasted children (50 millioon).
Some countries have made tremendous gains in addressing malnutrition. The 2015 Global Nutrition Report, documents new and significant progress in reducing malnutrition from Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Rwanda, Tanzania, and nearly all of the Indian states. Both reports contribute to monitor progress, accelerate action, and enhance accountability.
Stop Stunting Matters 20: Complementary food hygiene. An overlooked opportunity in the WASH, Nutrition and Health sectors.
Poor complementary feeding accounts for much of the global burden of child stunting. Unhygienic compolementary feeding exposes young children to pathogens of fecal origin, a major cause of diarrhea and enteropathy, which may lead to poor linear growth and stunting.
The work of SHARE ( Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) in Nepal shows that it is possible to sunstantially improve food hygiene behavior and reduce the risk of microbiological contamination of complementary foods for children through scalable community level interventions that use emotional drivers rather than cognitive appeals.
The successful improvement of safe complementary food hygiene practices can help to prevent the contamination of complementary foods, improve children's linear growth and reduce child stunting.
Stop Stunting Matters 19: Cash transfers and child nutrition? What we know and what we need to know.
Social protection can improve households'ability to obtain food, health and care, which are key for child nutrition. Cash Transfer (CT) programmes, which deliver direct cash to households, are increasingly popular social protection initiatives. The questions is: can CT programmes improve nutrition outcomes in young children?
This review paper concludes that a significant number of studies indicate the positive role of CT programmes in increasing resources for food, health, and care. The evidence on the positive impact of CT on children's growth and nutrition is mixed. Key gaps that need to be addressed refer to the ability of CT programmes to have a positive impact on the proximate determinants and children's growth such as children's dietary diversity and caregiver's child feeding and care practices.
Stop Stunting Matters 18: Association of child poverty, brain development and academic achievement.
The objective of the study was to determine if the relationship between household poverty and children's poor learning performance is mediated by structural changes in brain development.
Using resonance imaging scans and standardized child development tests, the authors found that poverty is tied to changes in the structure of several areas of the brain that are associated with school readiness. The largest influence was observed among children from the poorest households.
The authors conclude that child poverty, which often manifests itself in the form of stress, poor stimulation and undernutrition, operates on children's learning achievement through a neurobiological mechanism that results in changes in the structure of the brain.
Stop Stunting Matters 17: Three studies indicate that breastfeeding improves survival and brain development in children and reduces the risk of endometrial cancer in women.
The first study (Sankar et al) documents that the risk of mortality in infants < 6 months of age who are partially breastfed is about 5 times higher than among children who are exclusively breastfed.
The second study (Victora et al) finds that children who were breastfed for 12 months or longer had higher IQ scores, more years of education, and higher incomes 30 years later than those who were breastfed for less than 1 month.
The third study (Wang et al) finds that breastfeeding reduced the risk of endometrial cancer, which decreased by 2% for every one-month increase in the duration of breastfeeding.
» Optimal breastfeeding practices and child mortality. A systematic review and metanalysis (Acta Pediatrica, 2015)
» Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age in Brazil (Lancet Global Health 2015)
» Association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis (Nutrients, 2015)
Stop Stunting Matters 16: Reaching the global target to reduce stunting. How much would it cost and how can we pay for it?
Despite significant progress over the past two decades, the world is off track to meet the global target to reduce the number of stunted underfives by 40% by 2025 (from 162 million to less than 100 million).
This analysis by the World Bank and partners estimates that meeting the global stunting target will cost approximately an additional $8.50/child/year. This cost coers the scale-up of high-impact, proven interventions focused in the 1,000 day window from conception to age two years. The authors argue that this investment is well within the reach of the international community. Furthermore, according to recent estimates, $1 invested in stunting reduction generates about $18 in economic returns.
» Reaching the global target to reduce stunting. How much would it cost and how can we pay for it. Overview Brief (2015)
» Meeting the global goals for nutrition. How much will it cost, and who will pay
Stop Stunting Matters 15: Association between maternal age at child birth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring
The authors use logitudinal data on 19,400 mothers from 5 low- middle-income countries (LMICs: Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa).
The study finds that children of mothers ≤ 19 years had a 20-30% increased risk of low birthweight and preterm birth compared to those of mothers aged 20-24 years. Additionally, children of mothers ≤ 19 years in LMICs are disadvantaged at birth and in childhood nutrition and schooling. Efforts to prevent teenage pregnancy in LMICs should be strengthened.
Stop Stunting Matters 14: Large scale communication campaign with Aamir Khan in India using mobile phones.
As a follow up to the National Communication Campaign with Aamir Khan in India, UNICEF has partnered with the Ministry of Women and Child Development, The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust, the Indian Academy of Pediatrics, and Vodafone to reach out to families through mobile phones.
At a rate of about 1 million messages daily, Vodafone will deliver 900 million messages over 3 years to disseminate 4 short video-clips (18 different languages) that focus on 4 essential interventions to prevent stunting: early initiation of breastfeeding and the importance of colostrum feeding; exclusive breastfeeding for infants under six months; appropriate complementary foods for children 6-24 months; and good nutrition for pregnant women.
» For all information on this campaign visit http://www.iap.healthphone.org
Stop Stunting Matters 13: Early childhood stunting is associated with lower developmental levels in the subsequent generation of children.
This prospective study compares developmental levels in children born to parents who were stunted or non-stunted in early childhood. The study finds that children born to a stunted parent had lower developmental quotient, lower cognitive scores, and lower height-for-age.
According to the authors, the findings suggest that the impact of stunting on development continues in the next generation of children. If replicated, these findings have important implications for estimation of the cost of stunting to social and economic development.
Stop Stunting Matters 12: Care for children with Severe Acutre Malnutrition (SAM), New evidence from India. Two papers published this month focus on the management of SAM in India.
The first study finds that the new WHO discharge criteria will reduce the recovery rates currently reported by programmes in India but will increase programme impact as children who are younger and/or more undernourished are kept for a longer time in the programme.
The second study reports the finsings of the first conventional CMAM programme in India using a WHO-standard, ready-to-use, lipid-based therapeutic food produced in India. The CMAM programme achieved high survival and recovery rates in non-defaulting children.
» How do the new WHO discharge criteria for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition affect the performance of therapeutic feeding programmes? New evidence from India. EJCN, 2015
» Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition in India. New evidence from Bihar. AJCN, 2015
Stop Stunting Matters 11: Why Sanitation Matters for Nutrition. Global Food Policy Report 2014-15.
Research during the past year indicates that sanitation could be critical in shaping child height, a key indicator of the child's nutrition in the first few years of life, including in utero.
Most impact evaluations of sanitation interventions have not shown much effect on child stunting. A main reason could be that interventions were not effective in changing behaviour on open defecation at scale.
The authors conclude that learning how to be more effective at changing open defecation behaviour into latrine use, particularly in India, is a top research priority.
Stop Stunting Matters 10: Geographical and socio-economic inequalities in women and children's nutritional status in Pakistan.
The paper uses data from Palistan's National Nutrition Survey 2011 and finds that the prevelence of child stunting in Pakistan's 143 districts ranged between 22% and 76%. In 30 districts, the prevalence of child stunting was above the highest national prevalence in the world. Conversely, in 106 districts more women were overweight than were underweight.
The authors conclude that Pakistan is beginning to face the concurrent challenge of high burden of childhood undernutrition and maternal overweight/obesity.
Stop Stunting Matters 9: Household sanitation and personal hygiene are associated with stunting in rural India. The paper analyzes the association between stunting and hygiene and sanitation indicators using data from 3 surveys.
Household access to a toilet was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting in children 0-23 months old. Similarly, caregiver's self-reported handwashing with soap before meals or after defecation was associated with a 13-15% reduced odds of stunting.
Besides the associations seen using survey data, randomized trials are needed to conclude that there is a casual link between child stunting and household hygiene/sanitation practices.
Stop Stunting Matters 8: Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan. The analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of children 0-23 months old.
Among other findings, the analysis shows that recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower risk of stunting, particularly in infants. Children who were not fed complementary foods at 6-8 months had about 3-fold higher odds of being severely stunted, suggesting that poor complementary feeding may be a major determinant of stunting in Bhutan.
Stop Stunting Matters 7: Progress in reducing child undernutrition. Evidence from Maharashtra. In Maharashtra — India's second most populous state with ∼ 120 million people - the prevalance of stunting in children under two declined from 38.6% in 2006 to 23.3% in 2012.
What enabled economic growth to deliver nutrition results between 2006-12, but not before? The authors hold that this decline can be associated with the interventions initiated through Maharashtra's State Nutrition Mission, illustrating the critical role that improved governance for nutrition at the state - decentralized - level can play in reducing stunting in India and beyond.
Stop Stunting Matters 6: Reducing child undernutrition: past drivers and priorities for the post-MDG era. As the post-MDG era approaches in 2016, reducing child undernutrition is gaining high priority on the international development agenda, both as a maker and marker of development.
Using data from 1970 to 2012, the authors find that the prevalence of child stunting in South Asia fell by ~30 percentage points since 1970 but still remains at a ~40%. The authors conclude that three underlying determinants of child stunting should be of particular focus in the post-MDG era: dietary diversity, access to sanitation, and gender equality.
Stop Stunting Matters 5: South Asia Regional Action Framework on Nutrition. The Framework encourages the eight member countries to prioritize the reduction in child undernutrition through a four pillar approach that can be applied across the region.
- Pillar 1: High level political commitment to improve nutrition governance;
- Pillar 2: Scale up evidence-based, nutrition-specific and nutrition sensitive interventions;
- Pillar 3: Increase institutional + human capacity to manage nutrition programmes;
- Pillar 4: Increase effectiveness + accountability through a coherent monitoring and knowledge management system.
Stop Stunting Matters 4: Global Report. The Slide Presentation. Used to present the Global Nutrition Report, these slides (courtesy L. Haddad) summarize the Report's key messages. Here are three:
- Progress is slow globally, but there are some spectacular country advances; Bangladesh, India, Nepal cited as making great strides in reducing stunting;
- Scaling up is more possible than ever. A relentless focus on coverage of nutrition specific interventions is a must;
- A nutrition data revolution is needed; 49% of countries don't have enough data to assess if they are on/off course.
Stop Stunting Matters 3: WHO Global Nutrition Target: Stunting Policy Brief - This policy brief released officially at the Second International Conference of Nutrition (ICN2) last week in Rome - supports the global taget of reducing by 40% the number of underfives who are stunted (2010-2025). Two of several important messages:
- Stunting is a well-established marker for poor national development;
- Experiences in four countries - Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and the State of Maharashtra in India - indicate the equity-driven programmes have achieved high reductions in stunting while closing gaps between the wealthier and poorer population segments.
Stop Stunting Matters 2: Increasing socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India: trends between 1992–93, 1998–99 and 2005–06 - This paper analyzes the trends in socio-economic inequality in stunting children <3 years in urban India (1993-2006). Three key findings:
These findings call for programmes focusing on children of India's lower socioeconomic groups.
- The prevalence of stunting declined across household wealth quintiles from 40% to 31%
- In the richest wealth quintile, stunting dropped from 29% to 16% (i.e. a 45% decline);
- In the poorest wealth quintile, stunting declined from 55% to 45% (i.e. a 16% decline);
Stop Stunting Matters 1: Global Nutrition Report underscores the importance of actions and accountability for Nutrition. For South Asia, it highlights:
And much more!
- Benefit-cost ratios of scaling up nutrition interventions to reduce stunting (from 13 in Nepal and 29 in Pakistan to 56 in Sri Lanka)
- New data on stunting in India and the drivers of the reduction in Maharashtra from 36.5% to 24% (2006-2012)
- The drivers of the decline in stunting in Bangladesh from 59% to 40% (1997-2011)
Recent global data indicate that 26% of children under five years of age (i.e. 165 million) have stunted growth.
The Stop Stunting Regional Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform where state-of-the-art evidence, better practices and innovations were shared to accelerate sectoral and cross-sectoral policies, programmes and research in Nutrition and Sanitation to reduce the prevalence of child stunting in South Asia.
Video: "Take-Home Messages" - Shawn Baker, director of nutrition for Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, summarizes the take-home messages from the Stop Stunting conference in New Delhi, India, on November 12, 2014. Download presentation - Watch interview
Sandy Cairncross - OBE, Professor of Environmental Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Download presentation - Watch interview
Kathryn Dewey - Professor, Department of Nutrition, Director, Program in International and Community Nutrition, University of California
Download presentation - Watch interview
Meera Shekar - Lead Health and Nutrition Specialist, The World Bank, Washington DC, United States of America
Download presentation - Watch interview
S V Subramanian - Professor of Population Health and Geography, Harvard University
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Sheila Vir - Director and Senior Nutrition Specialist, Public Health Nutrition and Development Centre, New Delhi
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|Jean Humphrey - Professor, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns' Hopkins University
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Francesco Branca - Director, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization (WHO)
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Tina Sanghvi - Senior Technical Director, Alive and Thrive Programme, Family Health International-360
Purnima Menon - Senior Research Fellow, Poverty, Health, and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, India
Aamir Khan shines a spotlight on child stunting in South Asia - Film actor, producer and director Aamir Khan, UNICEF's Regional Goodwill Ambassador for South Asia, talks about the importance of improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in the region. Watch Video
14 September, 2019